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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



A NATUBALIST 



THE TRANSVAAL. 



NATURALIST 



IX 



THE TRANSVAAL 



BY 



W. L. DISTANT, 



I EMBER OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF FRANCE, 

FELLOW OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 

AND CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF STOCKHOLM 
AHD OF THE BUFFALO SOCIETY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 



WITH COLOUKED PLATES AND OKIGINAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



' Nature retains her veil, despite our clamours : 
That which she doth not willingly display 
Cannot be wrenched from her with levers, screws, and hammers." 

Faust' (Bayard Taylor's Transl.). 



LONDON: 

K. H. PORTER, 18 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W. 
1892. 

[All Hights reserved.'] 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FEANCIS, 
BED LION COVBT, FLEET STEEET. 



TO THE MEMORY OF MY FATHER. 

Jita'and^r Distant, 

WHO, IN OLD SOUTH-SEA WHALING-DAYS, SAILED 

ROUND AND ROUND THE WORLD, 
AND TRANSMITTED A LOVE OF ROAMING TO HIS SONS, 

I DEDICATE THIS BOOK. 



83822-1 



PREFACE. 



THE following pages record the impressions of a natu- 
ralist, who, during a twelve months' business sojourn 
in the Transvaal, deprived of the society of family and 
friends, employed the whole of his leisure time in that 
most delightful consolation zoological recreation. 

In my schoolboy days a journey through the Trans- 
vaal would have almost attained the dignity of an ex- 
ploration ; now Pretoria can be reached in three weeks' 
time from London, and the once long wagon-trek from 
the Cape is replaced by less than two days' train and a 
little more than two days' coach service. But this 
facility of transit, so valued by the business man and so 
necessary to the material development of the country, 
has deprived the sportsman of a hunting-ground and 
curtailed the view of the naturalist. No longer do vast 
herds of ruminants roam over these solitary plains, for 
when commerce reached the land, and bid for the skins 
of the buck and antelope, the Boer accepted the price 
and slaughtered, if not actually exterminated, the finest 



Vlll 



PREFACE. 



ruminant fauna that ever a land possessed. Further 
inland the Kafir, armed with a gun, pursues the same 
desultory warfare, and this portion of Southern Africa 
has completely lost what was once its most distinctive 
zoological feature. This animal extinction has also 
reacted on the Boer himself: now no longer the mighty 
hunter, he will soon cease to be the matchless marks- 
man as of old ; and his life on the solitary farm is 
thereby rendered more monotonous, for the gun was 
once his constant companion. When railways intersect 
the country the ox-wagon will gradually disappear, and 
with it the last characteristic feature of the old " voor- 
trekkers." 

The Transvaal is thus changed in its natural aspects 
from a tract once supporting an immense number of 
wild animals, and peopled by rugged farmers who lived 
a semi-pastoral, semi-hunting existence, to a country 
becoming progressively subject to European laws and 
customs, in which the earlier rough struggle for ex- 
istence is now transformed into a race for wealth. The 
lawyer and the financier thrive where in recent years 
the lion and leopard fought for food, and townships 
have sprung up on spots where living Boers have 
formerly shot big game. 

I thus saw the old order changing, and a state 
basing its progress solely on the foundation of aurifer- 
ous reefs, for the future of the Transvaal largely depends 
upon the development of its mineral wealth. But the 
real Boer population form no appreciable portion of the 
inhabitants which reside in the large towns and depend 
on commerce and mining; the true Boer is still a 



PREFACE. ix 

farmer, and a few high officials do not adequately re- 
present the characteristics of what let alone would 
have formed a distinct race of Dutch people. I hope I 
have been fair with these emigrant farmers, whom I really 
respect, but it is difficult to steer clear of both Boer 
and British prejudice : the first resents any criticism, 
the second criticises in a too sweeping and trenchant 
manner. 

In an Appendix I have given an enumeration of my 
zoological collections, which were much assisted by an 
old and valued servant, Timothy Donovan, who accom- 
panied me to the Transvaal. The proportion of new 
species is perhaps as high as might have been expected 
from the number of specimens collected, which may 
provide the material by which to commence a tabulation 
of the fauna of the Pretoria District, and also show 
that even a busy man, during his leisure hours, may 
do some not altogether useless biological work. 

The lamented death of my friend, Mr. H. W. Bates, 
as these pages were passing through the press, adds a 
melancholy reflection to the obligations I am under, 
for his reading of my proofs with valuable suggestions. 
These were probably the last of the many friendly 
offices he undertook to aid his favourite study and to 
oblige his friends. 

To the specialist friends who have aided me in 
working out my collections I render my best thanks, 
and have individually acknowledged their kind help 
when enumerating the different Orders in the Appendix. 
My travelling companion, Mr. Henry Blackwell, Jun., 



x PREFACE. 

who allowed the use of some photographs taken by 
himself, has placed me under great obligation, and I am 
also indebted to the painstaking care of my artists, 
Mr. P. J. Smit and Mr. W. Purkiss. Last, but not 
least, my thanks are due to my publisher for having 
afforded me every facility to produce this small book in 
a worthy guise and manner. 

Purley, Surrey. 

February, 1892. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

DEDICATION v 

PREFACE vii 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv 

CHAPTER I. 
TO PRETORIA. 

Sail for South Africa. Passengers illustrate evolutionary factors in the 
formation of a Colony. Zoological observations at sea. Flying- 
fish. Malays at Cape Town. South- African Museum. Port 
Elizabeth. Different routes to the Transvaal. Durban. .Railway 
views between Durban and Newcastle. Coach-travelling and its 
incidents. MajubaHill and scenes of late Boer War. Extermi- 
nation of the ruminant-fauna. Johannesburg after the boom. 
Pretoria ; botanical features ; design of the town 1 

CHAPTER II. 

THE BOER. 

Where are the Boers ? The Boer a farmer. Grass-fires and their 
consequences. Habits of the farmer. Peculiar theology of the 
Boer which governs his life and action. Boer relations to the 
Kafirs. Violence of Church disputes. President Kriiger. Some 
causes of the Boer War. The Boers as soldiers. Homely 
life of the President ; his great influence with the Boers. 
Many farmers now wealthy men. Physical characteristics of the 
Boers ; their supposed dislike to the British ; their mistrust of the 
Hollanders , . 20 



x j[ CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 
PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 

PAGE 

Natural aspects in the dry winter season. Orthoptera and Coleoptera. 
Commencement of the rainy season. Protective resemblance in 
butterflies. Vegetable tanning-products. Survival of spined and 
hard-wooded trees in the struggle for existence with herbivorous 
fauna. Baboons. Bad roads. A Boer farm. Grass-fires. Dust- 
storm. Vast quantities of beetles under stones. Bad weather and 
heavy losses in live stock. Appearance of winged Termites. 
Swollen streams and their dangers. Accidental dangers in animal 
life. Birds of Prey 38 



CHAPTER IV. 
PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA (continued). 

Geological features. Dendritic markings. The highlands and the sea. 
Heavy rains and floods. A protected butterfly and its enemy. 
Mimicry. Cicadas. Species found both in England and the 
Transvaal. The Secretary-bird. Vultures. Locust-swarm. The 
Paauw and other Bustards. The Monitor. Partridges. Evolu- 
tion and struggle for existence 58 



CHAPTER V. 
THROUGH WATERBERG. 

Scarcity of timber in the Transvaal. Leave Pretoria for Waterberg. 
Waterless region of the Flats. The Warm Baths. Beautiful 
scenery. Euphorbias and their poisonous qualities. Fever dis- 
tricts. The Massacre at Makapan's Poort. Sanguinary retribution 
at Makapan's Cave. A fine orthopterous insect. The Prospector. 
Reptiles. Ravages of the " Australian Bug." Majuba day. 
Mimicking insects 77 



CONTENTS. Xlli 

CHAPTER VI. 
ZOUTPANSBERG AND THE MAGWAMBAS. 

PAGE 

Start for the Spelonken in Zoutpansberg. Horse-sickness. Pietersburg. 
A fine Convolvulus. A castellated residence in the Wilds. 
Night in a wagon. Kafir traders. Kafirs on the tramp. Poly- 
gamy. The Magwambas, their customs and institutions. An ox 
feast and dance. The Makatese. The Mavendas and their iron- 
work. Birds' food largely orthopterous. Good entomological spots. 
Zoutpansberg with its natural riches still undeveloped .... 94 

CHAPTER VII. 
A JOURNEY TO DURBAN. 

Acacia mollissima. Heavy cost on imports to the Transvaal. Johannes- 
burg and its Hotels. Heidelberg. A Priest of Islam. Across 
the Ingogo heights to Newcastle. Durban. Colonel Bowker. 
Best collecting-grounds around Durban. Flowers, fruit, and insects. 
Peculiarities in railway construction. Model Natal farms. 
Insect-pests to gardens. Difficulties in coaching after heavy rains. 
The store- and canteen-keeper of the veld 115 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE MEN OF PRETORIA. 

The inhabitants of Pretoria. Auriferous wealth alone the present cause 
of Transvaal development. Uneducated condition of the Boers. 
Liquor traffic with the Kafirs. The British colonist in the Trans- 
vaal. The Hebrew in Pretoria. Commercial morality. The name 
of Mr. Gladstone execrated in the Transvaal. The Kafir and his 
value as a labourer. Sanitary condition of Pretoria. Vital statis- 
tics, After-effects of the boom. Attachment of Colonists to their 
adopted country 132 



xiv CONTENTS. 



APPENDIX. 

PAGE 

Enumeration and Description of the Anthropological and Zoological 
Objects collected by the Author, with Contributions by ERNEST 
E. AUSTEN, Zool. Dept. Brit. Mus., G. A. BOULENGER, Zool. 
Dept. Brit. Mus., F.Z.S., JULES BOURGEOIS, M.E.Soc.Fr., J. H. 
DURRANT, F.E.S., C. J. GAHAN, M.A., Zool. Dept. Brit. Mus., 
Rev. H. S. GORHAM, F.Z.S., MARTIN JACOBY, F.E.S., K. I. 
POCOCK, Zool. Dept. Brit. Mus., H. DE SAUSSURE, Socius hon. 
Soc. ent. Lond. Rossic. Belg., &c., &c., Prof. C. STEWART, Pres. 
Linn. Soc., &c., &c., and the AUTHOR 151 

MAMMALIA 157 

AVES 163 

REPTILIA AND BATRACHIA 173 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA 179 

INSECTA . . 187 



INDEX . . . .263 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGK 

Makapan's Cave Frontispiece 

Good-bye to the Tender 1 

Pier-head, Cape Town . 4 

Changing Mules on the Veld 10 

View in the Town of Pretoria 15 

Boer Wagon with Firewood 20 

President Kriiger 29 

Chera progne. Male in nuptial plumage 38 

Batrachians devouring Termites 49 

After the Rains. Coleoptera 51 

Buteo desertorum. Post of Observation 56 

Dendritic Markings in Quartzite 58 

Hemisaga pradatoria, n. sp 63 

Locust-swarm in Pretoria 71 

The Monitor (Varanus niloticus) 77 

Cfonia wahlbergi 83 

Native Hut, Spelonken . 94 



xv i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Castellated Residence in Zoutpansberg 97 

Magwamba Woman crushing Meal 101 

Native Arts of the Spelonken facing 102 

Magwamba War- Axes 103 

Magwamba Assegais and Shield 105 

Native Iron-smelting 109 

Magwamba Carvings 114 

Apple- destroyers in Natal 115 

Mylabris transversalis on Rose 127 

Kafir Shepherd . 132 

Native Policeman 141 

Glauconia distant I 175 

Spirostreptus transvaalicus 182 



COLOURED PLATES : 

Tab. I. New Species of Coleoptera. 
II. ,. Rhynchota. 

III. Lepidoptera and Rhynchota. 

IV. Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymeno- 

ptera, and Coleoptera. 
UNCOLOURED PLATE : 
Tab. V. New Species of Arachnida and Hymenoptera. 



( 1 ) 




GOOD-BYE TO THE TENDER. 



CHAPTER I. 



TO PRETORIA. 

Sail for South Africa. Passengers illustrate evolutionary factors in the 
formation of a Colony. Zoological observations at sea. Flying-fish. 
Malays at Cape Town. South-African Museum. Port Elizabeth. 
Different routes to the Transvaal. Durban. Railway views between 
Durban and Newcastle. Coach-travelling and its incidents. Majuba 
Hill and scenes of late Boer War. Extermination of the ruminant- 
fauna. Johannesburg after the boom. Pretoria ; botanical features ; 
design of the town. 

Ox a fine June day in 1890, the 'Norham Castle' 
slowly hauled through the Dock-gates and steamed 
down the river, to carry many hopes and fears to South 
Africa. At Dartmouth our principal contingent of 
passengers joined the vessel and we sped South. It is 
a well-established rule that readers shall be spared the 
dreary recital of a voyage that has now lost all its 
romance with increased speed and additional comfort, 
though a floating hotel w r as a strong contrast to the 
surroundings of my trip to the Malay Peninsula in a 
sailing-vessel twenty-three years previously. 



2 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

The sociologist, however, may see much to interest 
and instruct him in the curious group of individualities 
which constitute the passengers on an ocean steamship. 
Thrown so close together, with no outside news of the 
world, we notice each other's peculiarities and expose 
our own. South Africa is now not only a health resort 
for the invalid, and a campaigning ground for the com- 
mercial traveller, but its gold-fields attract those spirits 
of enterprise and speculation who wait on fortune and 
scorn laborious days. By the side of the sufficiently 
opulent man of weak constitution who can afford the 
time and money incidental to a trip for health, is the 
commercial traveller who now carries his samples through 
the colonies as he once " worked " the United Kingdom, 
and starts for the Cape with little more preparation than 
he would have previously made for a journey to the 
North of England. Church of England curates who 
take precedence on Sundays and members of High 
Anglican Sisterhoods sail along with highly educated 
and less educated dissenting ministers. Forward our 
hardy mechanic, " whose bones were made in England," 
who will carry his handicraft, his energy, and also his 
love of " wholesome beer " to a colony that will be 
certainly the richer for his first two qualifications, rubs 
shoulders with the lower form of Israelite, who does 
not compliment his race, who may possibly buy " illicit 
diamonds," or even succeed to the greater height of 
assisting in the promotion of a bogus gold company. 
All, however, are "hail, good fellows, well met," on 
board, and though saloon, second-class, and steerage 
are a little timorous of each other afloat, the distinctions 
are not so accentuated as on shore. It is in these 
migratory assemblies that one may study the evolution 
of a colony. 

There is little opportunity for a naturalist on board a 
fast steamer ; and for one who has travelled the ocean 
before, the animals met are much the same. But after 
twenty years the sight of a flying-fish is a renewed 
delight. We first met with the genus for there are 



TO PRETORIA. 3 

several species near Madeira, and here Exoccetus* 
Uneatvs, the largest species, is found ; further south the 
flying-fish are more numerous, but smaller in size. This 
fish is certainly the most prolific of any to be found in the 
warmer parts of the ocean, and its numbers are simply 
prodigious. All day, and presumably all night, as the 
vessel ploughs its course, it constantly (Disturbs and 
disperses the fish, which in these parts must universally 
populate the surface waters. I have frequently spent 
considerable time looking over the bows of vessels, and 
watched the almost incessant flight of the frightened 
creatures as the ship, like a monstrous enemy, tore 
through their midst. In recent years much attention 
has been paid to the question as to whether these 
Exoccetans flap their wings during flight, or simply 
skim with expanded wings from the initial velocity 
with which they leave the water. My own observa- 
tions certainly incline to the last opinion, and that the 
rising of the fish was coincident with a rapid movement 
of the tail, which always more or less reminded one of 
the action of the blade of a steamer's screw. This can 
also be frequently observed when the fish at the end of 
its flight apparently observes a lurking enemy f, and 
just touching the water, the action of its tail can be 
again noticed preparatory to a fresh escape from the 
sea. There can be little doubt that the flight of this 
fish is always of a protective character, and is scarcely 
undertaken for any pleasure or relaxation. A ship 
must appear as a hideous monster, and add to the many 
terrors in the lives of these abundant animals : some are 
more alarmed than others, for many of them will again 
take to the water but a short distance from the vessel, 

* This generic name is derived from a curious belief of the ancients, who 
were under the impression that these " sea swallows," as they called the 
flying-fishes, left the ocean at night and slept on shore, in order to be free 
from their enemies. From this practice of "sleeping out" they were named 
E.vocceti. 

t Pigafetta witnessed this in 1520, and quaintly wrote : " Meanwhile 
their enemies follow their shadow, and arriving at the spot where they fall, 
seize upon them and devour them a thing marvellous and agreea,ble to see." 

B2 



4 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

whilst a few, and generally the larger specimens, pursue 
a more prolonged flight. Although I have never been 
able to detect any flapping of the wing-like pectoral 
fins of the flying-fish, I could not but agree with a 
previously recorded observation, that there appears to 
be a vibrating movement, as in the wings of a grass- 
hopper*. The question, however, is dependent on the 
evidence of the senses and is difficult to determine. 
One very large school of Porpoises, an occasional Shark, 
basking or sleeping near the surface, many specimens 
of the "Portuguese Man-of-War " (Phyxalice) as we 
passed through the tropics, and oceanic birds (Molly- 
mauks, Albatrosses, and Petrels) as we approached the 
cooler regions of the Cape, were all that gratified the 
greedy eye of a naturalist. 




PIER-HEAD, CAPE TOWN. 

We reached the Cape in fifteen days after leaving 
Madeira, at least a day late, and our impatience was 

thp ^ r . tbe fl a !^ umen t and evidence against the non-flapping of the wings of 
F^heSh di^f f!^7^ ?^ iU /' " Die Bewe ^4eS der fliegefden 
W lifl? ( Zelts clmft fur wissenschaftliche Zoolo 8 ie, Suppl. 
%"i. xxx. p <J43, 1878) An opposite opinion has been advanced by OO 
Whitman ( American NaturalLt,' vol. xiv. p. 641, 1880). 



TO PRETORIA. 5 

not calmed by the reflection that in the early clays of 
discovery it took the Portuguese a hundred years with 
innumerable expeditions to double the same. Cape 
Town, with its thriving business community and its 
good shops, reminds one of a flourishing seaside town 
in England. The fishing- quarters are inhabited chiefly 
by Malays*, who seem, from long residence, to have 
quite lost the purity of their mother tongue, and the Malay 
women, in their best attire, affect a European costume, 
in which an enormous and hideous bloomer-skirt is the 
strongest point, a strange and unpleasant contrast to the 
graceful sarong I remembered in the Malay Peninsula. 
The South-African Museum, presided over by my old 
friend* Roland Trimen, leaves nothing to be desired but 
greater space and more available funds for the acqui- 
sition of fresh specimens. One can form no adequate 
conception of the South- African fauna from the present 
compulsory crowded contents of this building. The 
arrangement of a museum should be the reflection of a 
man's grasp of Zoology, but a curator has no oppor- 
tunity of displaying the same if sufficient 'space is not 
at his disposal. A local museum should perhaps follow 
the ideal of a man's knowledge, to know a little about 
everything, and everything about something ; so it might 
be somewhat weak in several groups, but very strong 
and exhaustive in one particular branch of Natural 
History. This is the case here, for Mr. Trimen is a 
renowned lepidopterist, and the collection of butterflies 
is perhaps more complete and better worked out than 
can be found in any other of our colonial museums. 
One of its greatest treasures is the head of a " White 
Rhinoceros " (Rhinoceros simus). This now practically 
extinct mammal, which has been shot by living sports- 
men, is unrepresented in any zoological menagerie, and 
its perfect skin or skeleton is unknown in any museum, 
thus affording a good illustration in the present day of 

* The large body of Malay Mussulmans at the Cape have of late years 
come under the patronage of the Sultan. A school has also been founded at 
Kimberley by the Sultan, which, after him, has been named Hamidieh 
(' Athenaeum,'' Oct. 17, 1891). 



6 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

how a species may disappear*. In South Africa more 
than one species of Buck and Antelope is rapidly ap- 
proaching the same fate ; and if it would be exaggera- 
tion to say the days, we may safely affirm that the years 
of the African Lion are numbered. 

There are now five routes for reaching the Transvaal 
from South Africa. The first is from Cape Town direct : 

miles. 

Cape Town to Kimberley (rail) . . . 
f Kimberley to Fourteen Streams (coach) 
Fourteen Streams to Klerksdorp 
Klerksdorp to Potchefstroom 

Potchefstroom to Johannesburg 

Total miles . .915 

This is the quickest and favourite passenger route 
from England, and with it we may describe what is 
usually a heavy-goods route, and by way of Port 
Elizabeth : 

miles. 

Port Elizabeth to Kimberley (rail) . . .485 
Coach journey as detailed in Cape route . 268 



Total miles . .753 

The next route via Bloemfontein from Port Elizabeth, 
recently opened, is now being pushed to the Vaal River 
to meet the connection from Johannesburg ; but before 
this can be done nearly a dozen either large rivers or 
spruits J have to be bridged over : 

miles. 

Port Elizabeth to Colesberg (rail) . . .305 
Colesberg to Norval's Pont (Orange lliver) 23 
Norval's Pont to Bloemfontein (rail) . .121 
Bloemfontein to Johannesburg (coach) . 250 



Total miles . .699 

* In 'Nature,' vol. xlii. p. 520, Dr. Sclater has written on this matter and 
figured both the heads of R. simus and the common species R. bicomis. 

The rail now extends to Vryburg, bv which the amount of coach- 
travelling is diminished. 

t A " spruit " ia a small stream or rivulet. 



TO PRETORIA. 1 

The East London line via Aliwal North to Johannes- 
burg is the least used : 

miles. 

East London to Aliwal North (rail) . .280 
Aliwal North to Johannesburg (coach) . 320 



Total miles . . 600 

The Natal, and the most pleasant, route is by way of 
Durban : 

miles. 

Durban (Point) to Charlestown (rail) . . 304 
Charlestown to Johannesburg (coach) say 130 

Total miles . . 434 

The last way the Transvaal may be approached is via 
Delagoa Bay: 

miles. 

Delagoa Bay to Moveni (rail) . . . . 62 

Moveni to Barberton (coach) . . . . 98 

Barberton to Pretoria (coach) .... 167 

Pretoria to Johannesburg (coach) ... 32 



Total miles . . 359* 

I had business to transact at both Cape Town and 
Durban, so necessarily approached the Transvaal through 
Natal. The voyage between Cape Town and Durban, 
calling at Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, and East London, 
occupied a week. We reached Mossel Bay on Sunday 
morning, and the church service, which on previous 
Sundays had seemed to have been of very strict ob- 
servance, was now suspended for the important opera- 
tion of discharging cargo. Port Elizabeth has no claim 
to beauty, but possesses an exceedingly healthy climate, 
is renowned for having the most genial and hospitable 
community in South Africa, can justly be proud of its 

* The accuracy of these figures can be relied upon, and they are extracted 
from some statistics specially prepared for the ' Johannesburg Standard and 
Digger's News,' by D. C. Stevens. 



8 A NATT7RALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Botanic Gardens, which by Scotch industry and skill 
were made on the site of a sandy waste, and exhibits 
the most unsatisfactory local museum it was ever my 
lot to enter. A new curator is now engaged, and will 
probably remedy many of its present defects ; but a com- 
mencement might be made by eliminating common 
Indian Lepidoptera, which are unnamed and unrealized 
as such, and also by removing some of the brilliant 
paint of various hues by which it has been sought to 
ornament a Shark which hangs pendent from the roof. 
At East London rough weather prevented a comfortable 
landing, but here an ichthyologist would find much to 
interest him. Two Hammer-headed Sharks (Zygcena sp.) 
patrolled the ship, whilst some of the crew threw, out 
lines and caught Sea-Perch, Cape Salmon, and Dog- 
fish. Both here and at Port Elizabeth sea-bathing is 
rendered dangerous by the presence of many large 
Sharks. 

Durban, washed by the Indian Ocean, has a more or 
less Oriental aspect: gaily-dressed Klings walk the 
roads and show their old partiality for selling fruit and 
vegetables ; it is the Hindu race that provide the rail- 
way porters and the hotel waiters, and a large number 
of the stores are kept by what are styled " coolie " 
merchants. Although it was still winter there was a 
warmth and colour about Durban that made the con- 
trast to the Cape very pleasant and very tropical ; but 
as Natal forms the subject of another chapter little need 
be said here, and our stay was very short. We landed 
at noon and left by the evening train for the Transvaal 
via Newcastle. 

The railway passes through some of the finest scenery 
of Natal ; but this part of the journey was completed 
during the night, and when daylight broke we were 
near Ladysmith, and mountain, ravine, and rivers were 
giving place to those bare and generally treeless tracts 
that are so universally known in South Africa as veld. 
From Ladysmith to Newcastle the rail ascends some 
steep inclines, which eventually lead to the high 
plateau on which Johannesburg and Pretoria stand, thus 



TO PRETORIA. 9 

accounting for the temperate climate of that inner 
south-eastern portion of the continent. Scarcely a 
living thing could be seen from the carriage windows, 
the parched aspect of an African winter, which made 
the wilderness look more forlorn, was qualified by the 
clear light, the cloudless sky, and the pure dry but 
invigorating atmosphere. This railway is the main 
artery by which Natal carries on its large and increas- 
ing trade with the Transvaal. It is but a few years 
ago that Pietermaritzburg was the terminus, and from 
thence wagon and coach were the only further means of 
transport ; then the iron way reached Ladysmith, after- 
wards pushed on to Biggarsberg, and at the time of our 
journey extended to Newcastle*, which we reached 
about midday. Biggarsberg particularly exhibits the 
migratory nature of these small termini. At the time 
when it represented though but for a short period 
the railway boundary, a very fair hotel was erected, 
large sheds were necessary to hold the merchandize that 
continually arrived and waited for wagon transport, 
whilst the neighbourhood became the residence of the 
different transport agents. Possessing nothing in itself, 
when the line extended to Newcastle, hotel, sheds, and 
transport agents passed on, and Biggarsberg to-day is a 
small village with a rather large railway station. New- 
castle is in a different position, and although the 
carrying trade is now transferred to Charlestown, it 
possesses coal, and has a wool trade which will maintain 
its already somewhat advanced development. 

It is singular to renew the old coaching days of 
England in South Africa, yet it is probable that the 
nearest approach to that method of travelling is to be 
found to-day in and near the Transvaal. We left New- 
castle on a clear July Sunday noon, with a full load of 
twelve passengers, extra luggage (for each passenger is 
only allowed 28 Ib.f ), and the Natal mails, in a kind of 
open break with a team of eight horses. Of regular 

* This was in 1890 ; in the spring of the year 1891 the line was opened for 
traffic as far as Charlestown, and now reaches the confines of the Transvaal. 

t On my return journey by coach from Pretoria to Vryburg I was charged 
7 extra for my trunk, although my personal passage was only 9 lOs. 



10 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

roads there are none, what we drove over are better 
described as good wide paths, like footways but 
broader across rugged common lands at home, with 
dips and hollows, large half-buried stones in some 
places, and small streams and rivulets spruits to cross 
occasionally, with jolting and bumping, which is the 
more noticeable on a first journey. But these rolling 
grassy plains and bare hills, stretching for hundreds of 
miles around, are not only invigorating, but positively 
exhilarating. It is winter, though the days are hot. 
No rain now falls, and the veld is covered with a close 
dried-up growth of herbage, giving a light brown tinge 
to the landscape till it meets the clear blue sky-line. 
It is at sunrise when these hues become intensified and 
tinged with the reflected solar light, and pale carmine and 
deep umber tints are then exhibited. We change horses 
about every hour at small wayside posting-houses, gene- 
rally covered with the universal roof of corrugated iron, 
for here there are neither tiles nor slates, and wood has 
to be imported or transported to these treeless wastes. 




CHANGING MULES ON THE VELD. 

One man drives " Cape Boys " excel at this work, 
the conductor sits by his side, and it is he who wields 
the long whip and helps to pilot the driver. The road 
is up-hill, amidst mountains and glorious views ; Natal 
here bids her farewell to the Dutch Republic, and a 
wilderness again reigns beyond. We pass through the 
scene of the late Boer War, past Majuba Hill, and 
through Laings Nek: but it is a sorry subject; all 
these fights took place on Natal territory which the 



TO PRETORIA. 11 

Boers had invaded, and brave English soldiers sleep 
around slain by the unerring bullets of plain Boer 
farmers who were held too cheap. Both sides were 
composed of brave men, but the rules of war observed 
by our commanders were too little marked by the 
subtlety of border warfare and too much by parade and 
field-day observance. Two small trees, since planted by 
his wife, mark the resting-place of the bold, genial, but 
unfortunate General Colley. These trees stand alone, 
the silence of the veld surrounds them ; by Colley's 
side lies the body of a companion in arms, whilst 
Majuba Hill at a short distance frowns above. It is a 
bitter and a sad spot for Englishmen, and we feel re- 
lieved as the night covers us while passing through 
Laings Nek, and painful memories are left behind. 
Volksrust and a small posting-house or hotel is reached 
about 8 P.M., and now we have entered the Transvaal 
and our luggage is searched. The search is thorough, 
but courteous. Individuals who have lately had their 
word accepted by the Inspectors that they carried no- 
thing excisable have afterwards boasted at Johannes- 
burg and Pretoria how they have " done " the Customs 
and smuggled through their duty-paying effects ; hence 
greater care is now taken and Englishmen have certainly 
no reason to complain. We take dinner and go to bed 
always two and sometimes four beds in a room ; but 
at 2.30 A.M. we are again aroused, and by 3 A.M. we are 
huddled up in the coach, for now the break is exchanged 
for the real mail-coach with a team of ten horses. It 
is perfectly dark and very cold, the windows are all 
pulled up, and though we have three ladies who do 
not object nine pipes are put in active work. One 
passenger tried very hard to start a conversation, but 
the darkness and the early hour were too depressing, 
and silence and tobacco resumed their sway. The dawn 
broke about 6 A.M., and a white frost was seen on the 
veld ; but as the sun rose and the mists were dispelled 
the view once more asserted its lonely grandeur, the 
clear atmosphere became positively tonic, whilst a small 
herd of Buck were seen about a mile away. These 



12 J NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL 

animals are now rarely met, and then only in small 
numbers. Within quite recent years great herds were 
passed as one travelled through the country, and these 
plains actually swarmed with Ruminants. The Rehbok 
(Pelea capreolus), Steinbok (Trayulus nipestris), Spring- 
bok (Gazella euchore), Hartebeest (Alcelaphvs caama), 
and Koodoo (Strepsiceros Jcudu) were generally seen 
and could always be found, but now only a few of the 
smaller " Buck " reward the hunter's toil. It is the 
scattered Boers who have thus altered this aspect of 
nature ; they slaughtered the animals for their skins 
when they found a small price could be obtained for 
them, and in former days their dress, including boots, 
were made of buckskin. A buckskin kaross kept them 
warm or provided the substitute for a carpet, whilst the 
same animals provided them with a good covering for 
furniture. No animals could long withstand such per- 
sistent slaughter, and to-day the lifeless veld bears wit- 
ness to one of the Boer influences on nature *. I have 
often heard old residents and sportsmen describe the 
panorama of Antelopes once to be seen moving across 
these scenes, which now are only vast solitudes. It is 
difficult to estimate the amount of nature's modification 
through man's influence. Even on these grassy plains, 
where superficially plant-life looks so poor and uniform, 
the extirpation of these vast herds of browsing animals 
must have produced botanical changes and modifications 
which only a local Darwin could have estimated. But 
here the growth of trees or shrubs that might have pre- 
viously been kept down by the ruminants is again frus- 
trated by the periodical grass-fires of the Boers (to be 
alluded to further on), and thus man again modifies the 
appearance of nature. 

Time passes much more quickly during these long 
coach journeys than would be expected ; there is a 
freshness in the air and an absence of restraint that 

* Methuen, in 1848, describes Springboks migrating in tens of thousands, 
literally concealing the plains and devouring every green herb, their ravages 
exceeding those of the locust swarm (' Life in the Wilderness,' p. 59). 

Methuen is speaking of the upper regions of the Colony, but the Transvaal 
must have been equally undi&turbed at that time. 



TO PRETORIA. 13 

contrasts with long railway-trips at home. Thus, 
though we started at 3 A.M. and did not reach our 
sleeping-quarters till 7 P.M., fatigue was in an inverse 
ratio to impatience. Little was seen during this day : a 
number of widely-scattered Guinea-fowl (Nuinida coro- 
nata], which generally frequent more wooded country 
" Bushveld " were passed on the open veld ; and 
occasional Vultures, soaring beneath a cloudless sky, 
emphasized what has been well called the " Trade-mark 
of Africa," in the shape of skeletons or carcasses of oxen 
and horses which had perished by the way and now 
ornamented at intervals the margins of the road by 
which we travelled. 

We did not start till 6 A.M. on the last day of our 
route ; but the charm of the journey is broken, for we 
are leaving South- African solitude and approaching the 
domain of the merchant, the miner, the company 
promoter, and the speculator; and this combination 
reaches its apotheosis in Johannesburg, the Chicago 
of the Transvaal. Long before we reach it clouds of 
thick brown dust meet and cover us, for a high wind 
has arisen, and soon the town itself is in view. There 
is no reason why Johannesburg should not be one of 
the healthiest spots in the world, its natural position 
and climate should render it such; defective sani- 
tation a short time back made it a veritable plague- 
spot, and typhoid fever, often attended with pneu- 
monia that usually attacked both lungs, carried off 
too many victims, and those who sought gold too 
often found death. It is the most English town of the 
Transvaal, and will eventually prove the real capital. 
In enterprise and business it bears the same relation to 
Pretoria as the City of London does to Westminster, 
though both the last and Pretoria are the seats of Par- 
liament. Johannesburg is now * in sackcloth and 
ashes, the occupation of the company promoter is gone, 
mining companies close almost daily, mining scrip is 
nearly valueless, and a settled apathy denotes the 
shareholder. Numbers leave the town, rents fall, the 

* This applies to the year 1890. 



14 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

restaurateur no longer reaps a harvest from champagne- 
drinking customers, and machinery can be bought for 
almost half its cost in London, with the loss of the 
heavy transport cost to the Transvaal. But recently 
the " booms " of Kimberley and Barberton had found a 
home in Johannesburg, but now it is merely an abode 
of baffled financiers, unemployed promoters, and more 
or less ruined shareholders. But Johannesburg will as 
surely recover from this depression as the French 
Republic shook off the disaster of Sedan, but it will be 
only on the ruins of the gambler's wreck with which it 
is now strewn. The present dreadfully monotonous 
appearance of the town will be altered when the nume- 
rous plantations of trees, which are now growing well, 
shall have grown more, and perhaps of all towns in the 
Transvaal, Johannesburg has the future. Even now, in 
1891, improvement has commenced, and, as an acquaint- 
ance told me in Pretoria, " I can now go to Johannes- 
burg without all my old friends wanting to borrow 
money of me." Everywhere you are told the same tale 
by men with whom the times are now hopelessly out of 
joint " If I had only realized in time I could have 
gone home with a fortune." One speculator was 
pointed out to me who three years back came up from 
the Cape to Johannesburg with scarcely five shillings ; 
he turned company promoter, and twelve months since 
could have realized scrip for at least 80,000 (some said 
120,000). At the time I saw him he was not worth 
five pounds. The same thing occurred at the collapse 
of the " boom " at Barberton. I met a man who had 
been a canteen keeper there, and who told me he 
opened a small bar and billiard-room in that town when 
it was at the height of its pseudo-financial prosperity. 
As soon as finished he was offered 2000 for it, then 
75 per month for four years, both of which proposals 
he refused. The collapse occurred shortly afterwards, 
and he sold the place for scarcely the price of the furni- 
ture and fittings. He sold, as he told me, " because 
there was no one who could afford to come in and take 
a drink." 



TO PRETORIA. 17 

We left Johannesburg at 3 P.M., and after a five 
hours' coach journey reached Pretoria and sought the 
comforts of Lapin's Fountain Hotel. A railway-line is 
now being constructed between these towns and the 
days of this coach-line are numbered. 

Pretoria is the seat of government and capital of the 
Transvaal, and its numerous trees give it a pretty 
appearance compared with the barren veld on which it 
stands. It is almost surrounded by high and barren 
hills and lacks the invigorating climate of the more 
exposed Johannesburg. The trees which ornament it 
are not all indigenous and consist principally of a 
weeping- willow (Salix gariepina, Burch.), always a 
favourite of the Dutch, and here attaining a superb 
growth ; and stately gum-trees (Eucalyptus)., which 
either form noble avenues or fringe the borders of the 
roads. Peach-trees are everywhere abundant, not grown 
as at home trained to walls, but forming a large and 
sturdy growth resembling apple-trees. Towards the 
end of August and beginning of September peach- 
blossom is so universal as to give a pink hue to the 
general landscape, and is then one of the most effective 
botanical sights of Pretoria. This tree, as a general 
rule, is quite uncared for; it is neither pruned nor 
manured, though fruit is most abundant but poor in 
quality : the yellow peach is almost the only kind grown 
and is moderately hard and flavourless ; it is more 
adapted for cooking, and the Boer farmers use it for 
making " Peach-brandy," which they sell to the Kafirs. 
One may obtain an acquired taste for most " liquors," but 
anything more abominable to a fresh comer than this 
decoction is difficult to imagine. The peach here seems 
to revert back to its uncultivated condition, and is found 
like this in most parts of the Transvaal *. By the 1st 

* Mr. Wallace remarks that "the peach is unknown in a wild state, 
unless it is derived from the common almond, on which point there is much 
difference of opinion among botanists and horticulturists " ('Darwinism,' 
p. 98). 

According to Heyn, this tree " originated in the interior of Asia, beyond 
even the cherry land, and became known in Italy during the first century of 
the lioman Empire " (' Wanderings of Plants and Animals from their First 
Home,' p. 320). 

C 



18 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

of October the peach-blossom had altogether disappeared 
and was succeeded by the prodigious bloom of roses, 
which often constitute whole hedges to fields and gar- 
dens. There are a few white blooms, but the majority 
are of a pale pink colour, mostly single, some semi- 
double, and there are also small double button-hole 
blooms which grow in clusters ; these roses flower con- 
tinuously during the whole Transvaalian summer. An 
occasional passion-flower (Passiflora) is also found with 
the roses and blooms during the same time. Oleanders 
(Nerium oleander) thrive remarkably well in Pretoria. 
In one private garden are two specimens, each some 
fifteen to twenty feet high and of the circumference of 
a large fruit-tree ; these at the early part of October 
became a mass of red bloom and were a glorious con- 
trast to the puny examples we grow in our greenhouses 
in England. The oleander cut and trimmed forms a 
considerable portion of the hedge which encloses the 
cemetery. I did not meet with our old friend the 
Oleander Hawk-Moth (Chcerocampa nerii), though its 
non-appearance in my path was probably purely acci- 
dental, for I found two other hawk-moths common to 
our English fauna, which in Pretoria were not scarce 
and quite unmodified from their usual form : I allude to 
Aclierontia atropos and Protoparce convolvuli. In gar- 
dens the Hibiscus is hardy and blooms freely, but is not 
so much cultivated as such a handsome plant deserves, 
whilst the useful and robust " Indian shot-plant "(Canna 
indica) everywhere abounds with its striking foliage and 
its deep red bloom. Flower-gardens, however, exhibit 
most of the features of those at home the geranium, 
verbena, marigold, stock, dahlia, sunflower, phlox drum- 
mondi, and mignonette being very common. Zinnias 
here attain to particular excellence and growth, and the 
scattered seed has produced a small wild or degraded 
form which is found on the hard veld. It will thus be 
seen that the greater part of the plants and flowers of 
Pretoria are, like its inhabitants, migrants and colonists. 
The winter season, during which I arrived with its ever- 
green and deciduous trees, its orange-trees bearing ripe 
fruit, and its leafless willows, the August noon and the 



TO PRETORIA. 19 

March sunrise and sunset, is incongruous in the extreme, 
and is better described as the cool dry season. Towards 
the end of August gardening operations commence, for 
the rains are soon expected, and I received a Spring 
Catalogue of Plants and Seeds from a firm in Port 
Elizabeth that reminded one of the Carter and Sutton 
publications at home. 

The streets of Pretoria are wide and well designed. 
Their width, however, had a lowly origin, for they were 
thus devised and constructed for the convenience of ox- 
wagons, which could not turn round in narrow roadways. 
Years hence, when the rail shall have entirely or almost 
completely replaced the old Boer wagon, this require- 
ment will be forgotten, and those who originally laid out 
the town will probably be credited with more artistic 
and less utilitarian tastes. All the Transvaal towns are 
designed on one scale: given two parallel squares a 
church square and market square connect and ap- 
proach "same with a straight road, and let shorter trans- 
verse roads branch off on each side. Pretoria was thus 
laid out as Pietersburg is to-day, and the grass-grown 
paths and squares of the last are only like what the 
first was a few years since. Pretoria is now going 
through a building phase ; its giant government build- 
ings are equal to accommodate the official servants of a 
State twice the size of the Transvaal ; its mercantile 
buildings are sufficient for twice its present trade, so 
that business profits have already approached the com- 
petitive attenuation. A large market building is being 
reared upon the market square ; the town will shortly 
be lighted by electricity ; churches and chapels abound, 
and a Church of England Cathedral small, of course. 
A water company now supplies pure water though at 
a present prohibitive tariff to supplant the former 
typhoid beverage of the sluits; there is a permanent 
race-course, and a prosperous and gigantic distillery 
sheds a lurid light on three struggling breweries ; there 
are judges, a national flag, and a national anthem but 
are these really Boer institutions ? and what part have 
the true Boers taken in producing such results ? 

c2 




BOER WAGON WITH FIBKWOOD. 

CHAPTER II. 

THE BOER. 

Where are the Boers? The Boer a farmer. Grass-fires and their conse- 
quences. Habits of the fanner. Peculiar theology of the Boer which 
governs his life and action. Boer relations to the "Kafirs. Violence of 
Church disputes. President Kriiger. Some causes of the Boer War. 
The Boers as soldiers. Homely life of the President; his great 
influence with the Boers. Many farmers now wealthy men. Physical 
characteristics of the Boers ; their supposed dislike to the British ; their 
mistrust of the Hollanders. 

ONE of the first questions I asked after residing a short 
time in Pretoria, the capital of Boer-land, was, where 
are the Boers 1 They are not to be found employed in 
the Government offices, for here Hollanders are generally 
engaged ; they do not keep stores at least, so seldom, 
that the exception proves the rule ; there are no Boer 
clerks in mercantile offices, no handicraft or manufac- 
ture carried on by them. British, Dutch, and German 
are the nationalities which compose the population; 
but where are the Boers \ Beyond the farmers who 
bring in their produce and firewood for sale, and can 
be found at the early morning market, the Boer is a 
visitor at Pretoria, and the same remark applies to all 
the towns of the Transvaal. 

The Boer is a farmer, or, more correctly, a dweller on 
the veld he loves solitude and cares nothing for the 
outside world. I had frequent business relations with 
one, which occasioned almost weekly visits, and as we 



THE BOER. 21 

became fairly good friends, this farmer may be taken 
as a typical example of the Boer. This man possesses 
a tract of 20,000 acres, which is called a farm. 
Scarcely any of this domain is cultivated ; it embraces 
part of a range of hills which forms a boundary, and 
contains several isolated eminences as well, whilst in 
most places its level ground is strewn with rocky 
debris. These hills are sparsely wooded and it is 
from them that he obtains the firewood he sells at 
Pretoria and Johannesburg. He lives in a small and 
wretchedly kept and furnished house, the most con- 
spicuous articles of which are a small Dutch organ and 
a large family Bible, for he is a conventionally pious 
man. He cultivates a very small patch of his farm 
and leaves the rest, as nature gives it, to grazing pur- 
poses, and relies on his flocks and herds. Towards 
the end of the winter he fires the veld, the withered 
and dried grasses of which readily burn, and this allows 
to the new shoots, that will rise after the rains, light 
and air to commence growth. At that time of the 
year the illumined horizon almost nightly denotes the 
process of this primitive farming, and day reveals 
dismal black areas which tell the same tale. The 
young grass soon starts, and in a fortnight from the 
conflagration I have seen scattered and small patches 
of bright green, even before the rains have commenced. 
But these continuous fires help to keep the country in its 
present treeless condition, for nothing but a few stunted 
trees of the hardest wood can withstand the ravages 
of the flames, whilst young seedlings have no chance of 
surviving their first season's growth *. I believe the 

* The same thing occurred in the early days of the settlers in North 
America, when the Indians annually burnt the grass on their pasture- 
grounds. " The oaks bore the annual scorching, at least for a certain time, 
but if they had been indefinitely continued, they would very probably have 
been destroyed at last. The soil would have then been much in the 
prairie condition, and would have needed nothing but grazing for a long 
succession of years to make the resemblance perfect. That the annual fires 
alone occasioned the peculiar character of the oak openings, is proved by 
the fact, that as soon as the Indians had left the country, young trees of 
many species sprang up and grew luxuriously upon them." See Marsh, 
quoting from Dwight'a Travels (' Man and Nature, p. 136). 



22 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Government have to an extent prohibited these burnings ; 
but as the practice is carried on by the Boers, who are 
a law unto themselves, the enactment is more honoured 
in the breach than in the observance. 

The Boer farmer usually passes his time in riding 
about or sitting in his house smoking and drinking 
coffee. His vrow sees to the house- work, his sons 
drive the ox-wagon. The living is wretchedly poor 
and vilely cooked, but the Boer has few wants and is 
happy if left alone. Kafirs do the farm- work, which 
is principally attending to the cattle, who neither re- 
quire food nor water, as the veld provides the first, and 
they are always kept where some small stream can be 
found. These people retire to bed at about 7 P.M., but 
rise early. Illiterate and uneducated to a greater 
extent than our own rustic population, they possess 
a keen and intelligent grasp of the government and 
politics of the Transvaal, and in this respect are 
intellectually superior to our own men of the shires. 
They have won their position by hard fighting and hard 
living. Forty years ago they had to wage war with 
lions and leopards on their farms, where now scarcely 
a buck is to be seen, and not only did they struggle 
against wild beasts, but sustained sanguinary Kafir 
fights. They showed no mercy to one or the other, 
but fixed their boundaries and protected their farms. 
They are the nearest present approach to the old 
Hebrew patriarchs ; like them they value wealth in 
flocks and herds, and, away from the world in almost 
lonely wilderness, worship God, and often possess the 
same strong and unruled passions as were exhibited by 
some of the biblical personages. Wild tales of wild 
doings are sometimes told as having occurred in far- 
away farms ; but I incline to the view that these are 
often exaggerated and that the average Boer is, accord- 
ing to his lights, a citizen pioneer, and a rough, God- 
fearing, honest, homely, uneducated philistine. 

My Boer friend once showed me the two books 
which appeared to form his library; they were both 
large Bibles one in Dutch, which he read ; the other in 



THE BOER. 



23 



English, which he did not understand, but which had 
been taken as security for a debt. Both were illus- 
trated in that primitive and almost outrageous fashion 
which seems to have often inspired biblical artists, and 
no doubt these pictures considerably influence the 
minds of these primitive Boers. Science, literature, 
and criticism being unknown quantities, one can specu- 
late on the theological crudities of these good people. 
Alone on the veld, with the silent plains often more 
or less surrounded by the " everlasting hills," the 
Jehovah of the Jews seems to supplant in their minds 
the God of the Christian, and these biblical pictures of 
the pastoral patriarchs must have an attraction and 
sense meaning to them which are unknown to us. 
They are alone by themselves and the God of the 
Illustrated Family Bible. I often ask myself if it is 
better to be a joyful savage Kafir, or a sombre civilized 
Boer. The Calvinistic sabbath is supreme on Sunday 
in Pretoria : the Europeans drive and frequent their 
hotels and clubs on that day, or, at least, the migratory 
portion of our race do so ; the Boer rejoices in that 
respectable gloom dear to Scotchmen (at home) and 
themselves. 

To understand the Boer you must understand his 
theology, which rules his life and guides his actions, 
and you may as well fight him at once as seek to argue 
with his prejudices. In the early days of the Boer 
Trek, they absolutely thought that they would even- 
tually reach Jerusalem *. Their favourite scriptural 
reading is the Old Testament, and especially the Book 
of Joshua, where the command to go forward, enjoy 
the promised land, and smite the heathen was freely 
adopted by themselves as referring to the Transvaal and 
the treatment of the Kafirs. It is owing to this feeling 
that you find towns in the Transvaal called by names 
such as Bethlehem and Nazareth, and when in their 
Transvaal advance they approached a river which over- 

* For this and some subsequent information, I have the absolute authority 
of a Protestant clergyman of long experience in the country, whose name 
I naturally refrain from publishing. 



24 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

flowed its banks they absolutely thought they had struck 
a source of the Nile, and called it the Nile River ; ' Nyl- 
stroom," which name it still bears. The same clergyman 
to whom I have referred also told me that in his travels 
in the interior he had met most friendly Boers, who told 
him they could not understand why such an intelligent 
Englishman should preach to the Kafirs, who possessed 
no souls. I have been assured by other competent and 
long residents in the country, that the Boers look upon 
the Kafirs as the descendants of Cain, and consider 
any attempt to christianize them as trying to nullify a 
curse of God. It is difficult to hear these views 
openly expressed at the present day, and it will be 
more so in future, now that there is a foreign and 
critical community around ; but it is these esoteric 
beliefs that often govern the volitions of a people and 
the government of a country. A friendly Boer once 
speaking to an acquaintance about Matabele Land, 
assured him it was a beautiful country and would one 
day be taken over by the Boers, adding, seriously, 
" God Almighty never made such a beautiful country 
for Kafirs." 

The Boer treatment of the Kafirs is now certainly 
much better than it was ; but in saying this I feel a great 
reticence, for there are, and always have been, many 
Boers of natural kindness of heart, than whom Kafirs 
could have no better masters. But of others, and in 
former times, the reverse is the fact, and they treated 
their Kafir labourers with savage harshness *. They 
had not forgotten the long and sanguinary fights 
necessary to dispossess the natives of their country, 
nor of the savage reprisals and murders incidental to 
the same. Reports are current, for which I will not 
vouch, that, by degraded Boers, labourers once were 
sometimes only paid at the expiration of their term 
and then followed and shot for the recovery of the 



* Burchell gives an instance (' Travels in Interior of South Africa,' vol. ii. 
1>. !>">). See also Livingstone ('Popular Account Missionary Travels and 
Researches,' new edit. p. 28). 



THE BOER. 25 

money; whilst the poor wretches have often been 
bound to an apprenticeship of 21 years (which they 
did not comprehend), any attempts at escape being 
met with savage floggings and shootings. But these 
are not purely Boer characteristics. I remember the 
floggings on English-managed eastern sugar-estates 
twenty-three years ago, and the flagellations of the 
Stanley expedition are not yet effaced from memory. 

This conflict between Boers and Kafirs still quietly 
exists. The following was published and guaranteed 
as true by the ' Uitenhage Times ' of this year * : 

" A Dutch farmer and his wife living far north in the 
Transvaal, with no near neighbours, were surprised 
one day by twelve strange Kafirs. The farmer, who 
was outside the house, was bound hand and foot ; then, 
entering the house, the Kafirs began ill-treating the 
poor woman, but on the suggestion of one of their 
number, ordered her at once to cook a large pot of 
mealie pap. This the poor woman did in the presence 
of the Kafirs, although her clothes were torn from her 
back, and she was almost naked. When the pap was 
ready they all squatted round the pot and ordered 
the woman to get them sugar. She had only a canister 
and that w r as in the wagon box; she was told to 
fetch it. She remembered also at the same time that 
there was a bottle of poison in the wagon box, which 
her husband had bought for killing wild animals. 
Swiftly and secretly she shook the contents of the 
little bottle among the sugar, and shaking the canister 
well up, handed it to the Kafirs who helped themselves 
liberally, with the result that in a short time they were 
all suffering agonies and went outside one by one. 
Trembling at what she had done, at the escape she 
had from death or worse, and for the safety of her 
husband, the poor creature waited in the house for 
some time ; but eventually went out and found all 
twelve Kafirs dead, and her husband bound hand and 
foot in the kraal, but otherwise uninjured. She 

* Copied by the ' Press,' Pretoria, Feb. 18, 1891. 



26 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

immediately released him. He quickly buried the 
bodies of the dead Kafirs, and they resumed their 
farming-operations as if nothing had happened." 

Not only does a crude theology colour the life and 
guide the political existence of the Boers, but it 
absolutely threatens to prove the source of their dis- 
integration. From the earliest days of their history 
church disputes have been readily fomented and 
violently contested. At the present time one of these 
is raging to the edification of the whole community, 
and is consequent to the amalgamation of the two 
churches, Ned Herv and Ned Gereformeerde, which 
took place about five or six years ago. There were 
many dissentients to this amalgamation who refused 
to join it, and obtained a minister from Holland. It 
was agreed at the fusion that all properties should be 
transferred to the amalgamated churches, but this 
the dissentients refused to ratify, and a lawsuit was 
commenced in the High Court. But this is little to 
what occurred at Zeerust last year, when fifty armed 
Boers entered a Church, took possession of the same, 
forcibly ejected the minister from the pulpit, and 
turned the congregation adrift. It is no exaggeration 
to say that over this dispute the Boers were in mea- 
surable distance of civil war. My friend the farmer, 
of whom I have previously spoken, assured me with 
anger and sincerity that before any alteration was 
made with the present government of the Pretoria 
church, the contents of his rifle would have to be 
reckoned with, and that a notice would be sent to all 
the Europeans to avoid the Church Square on a certain 
day. The President at the time of writing is en- 
deavouring to bring about, if not a reconciliation, at 
all events some form of arrangement ; but feeling runs 
so high, that a cartoon on the subject just exhibited in 
a stationer's window was compulsorily removed, in 
obedience to the threats of angry men, who would 
otherwise have demolished the windows. The Boer 
has no sense of humour. 

These disputes are a real danger to the State ; their 



THE BOER. 27 

solidarity to the present moment is the only strength of 
the Boer government, and when once faction commences 
the liquidators of the present Republic will step in *. 

On October 5th occurred the first Dutch church 
festival during my residence, and of which there are 
several annually. To attend these the Boers travel 
in their wagons with their families from all the sur- 
rounding districts. Members of the church take the 
Sacrament, and the younger people are examined and 
admitted as church members. In former years the 
Church Square was covered with tents and wagons 
on these occasions, as the Boer has the right to out- 
span on the Square, and still possesses the privilege, 
which does not improve the sanitation of the town. 
The government now by quiet persuasion endeavours 
to induce these worshippers to camp outside; but 
most stand upon their "rights," though, as amongst 
all people, there are found the few reasonable spirits 
who listen to advice. I counted thirty-five wagons on 
the Square this Sunday morning, with the tents under 
which the families had slept, and towards evening 
the oxen were gathered together, ready to inspan and 
start homeward at daylight. Truely these Boers are 
a strange and unromantic people, a mixture in religion 
of the old Israelite and the Scotch Covenanter, and a 
nasty people to manage if their religious prejudices 
are attacked. I met the President walking to attend 
this service with his Bible under his arm and his pipe 
in his mouth. The President, however, belongs to 
the Dopper branch of the Church, which still remains 
intact, and the church is opposite the presidential 
residence, and is regularly attended by his honour, 
who sometimes conducts the services. The Doppers 
are the Quakers and Plymouth Brethren of the Dutch 
Church in the Transvaal. As a rule no instrumental 
music is used in their services, and no hymns are 

* Since this was written the President has by conference settled this dis- 
pute and has stated " that a serious danger to the State had been happily 
averted by the combined efforts of the delegates " ( ' Press ' Weekly Edition, 
Sept. 5, 1891). 



28 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

allowed, the Psalms of the Old Testament alone being 
sung. I could not help noticing that the Bopper 
congregations were better and more neatly dressed, and 
possessed that appearance of comfortable independence 
as is observed among the Friends at home. 

President Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kriiger was 
born on the 10th October, 1825, in the district of 
Colesberg in the Cape Colony, and is without doubt 
the greatest and most representative man that the 
Boers have yet produced. Uneducated or self-educated, 
he possesses a very large amount of that natural 
wisdom so often denied to men of great learning and 
of literary cultivation. With many prejudices he is 
fearless, stubborn, and "resolute, and he really under- 
stands Englishmen little better than they understand 
him. In his earlier days he has been a somewhat 
ardent sportsman and a good shot; he has been 
engaged and honourably mentioned in most of the Kafir 
fights of his time, and at the end of a rough and stormy 
life he fills the Presidential chair of a country that has 
passed Boer aspirations, and attained a financial 
character and position due to its mineral wealth and 
the energies of its Colonists, in which Boer industry 
and Boer influence have played but a small part. 
Socially he has always lived in a somewhat humble 
position, and it is to the credit of his nature as a man 
that he bears not the slightest trace of the parvenu. 
Plain and undistinguished in appearance, he combines 
the advantages of a prodigious memory with a remark- 
able aptitude for reading his fellow man, and this last 
quality would be more valuable were it not leavened 
by a weakness in resisting flattery and adulation. He 
is very pious and self-reliant, which is provocative of 
bigotry and hot temper ; and surrounded and approached 
on all sides by clever and often unscrupulous financiers 
and speculators, his scutcheon has worn wonderfully 
well, and his character and reputation passed through 
immy fiery ordeals ; he is also a rough diplomatist of 
no mean rank. 

He has been twice married : by his first wife he had 




PRESIDENT KBUGEB. 



THE BOER. 31 

one child ; by the second, who still survives, he became 
the father of sixteen children, seven of whom died 
when young. Each morning, about 9 A.M., he may be 
seen driving to the Government Offices, and in the 
afternoon he holds with pipe and coffee a reception on 
the " stoop " under the verandah of his house. Here he 
is daily seen by a heterogeneous assembly of visitors 
men with a grievance, applicants for posts, would-be 
concessionnaires, and even Boers, who seek his advice on 
family troubles. During the British annexation this 
was one of the features of Boer life we quite ignored, 
and for which we afterwards paid a heavy penalty. 
I have been assured by old and non- official residents, 
both by English and Dutch, that had " Shepstone 
remained," the outbreak might have been avoided. The 
Boers have a patriarchal form of procedure, and when 
they have, or think they have, a grievance, some elders 
are deputed to visit Oom Paul, as the President is 
usually called. President Kriiger listens to all they 
have to say, has a long talk with them, argues the 
point, hammers in his own convictions with his own 
private reasons and perhaps a few texts of scripture, and 
the elders go back, explain to their constituents that 
they now see it all clearly and that they must all be 
satisfied for the present. Shepstone was trusted and 
liked, pursued the same policy, possessed their con- 
fidence, and had touch with the whole state, and these 
qualities Lanyon had not. 

The longer one lives it is seen that people are governed 
by their prejudices and illusions, and the mystery becomes 
greater how the British Colonial Empire exists, governed 
by pro-consuls who do not possess that idea, and act as 
though the contrary prevailed. If a West-Indian 
Governor was transported to rule these Boers, and had 
the slightest trace of creole blood in his veins, he would 
be looked upon as a half-bred Kafir, and despised by the 
most ignorant and unwashed farmer in the territory. 
The late Boer w r ar should never have broken -out. 
Incapacity caused it; incapacity fought it; incapacity 
finished it. 



32 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

The Boers are trained irregular troops from their 
birth. A lad is first taught to ride a calf, and then a 
horse. At a certain age he has a rifle given to him, and 
two cartridges at a time. After a few occasions he must 
not return empty handed, even if he only brings a bird, 
or punishment ensues. A Boer in a fight stands behind 
his horse if in the open, like a dragoon ; only the dragoon 
is taught late in life, and the Boer and horse have 
grown up together and are one. In a campaign he only 
requires some dried meat beltong attached to his 
saddle, and a bottle of hollands or water ; his rifle and 
cartridges are secured around his body ; his horse will 
live on the grass of the veld : thus he is fully equipped, 
and baggage and commissariat unrequired and unknown. 
Whether in future years they will maintain their 
wonderful proficiency as marksmen, now that the big 
game is almost exterminated, is at least open to much 
doubt ; and in after years it is probable that the Boer 
(not the Hollander), with all his weaknesses, prejudices, 
and undoubtedly fine qualities, will be but a story that 
is told. It must always be remembered that not nearly 
all the Boers were called up in the late war ; while 
some of the richer combatants had two or three young 
Kafirs behind them with spare rifles, which they loaded 
and passed to them. 

Another cause of the war was the question of the 
official language. The convention clearly stated that 
English and Dutch were to be used ; but English soon 
became dominant, and thus a grievance arose. English 
residents in the Transvaal at the present time must not 
therefore complain overmuch that Dutch has been made 
the official tongue. 

The President lives in a homely style, and receives 
no company. His house is not situated in the best 
part of Pretoria, and there is nothing to denote the 
abode of the chief of the executive, save a flag-staff and 
a lounging sentinel. I advisedly use the word lounging, 
for I passed daily, and have seen these sentinels looking 
perfect victims of ennui and assuming such positions 
as would drive a European drill-sergeant to despair. 



THE BOER. 33 

Thrift marks the Presidential residence. In the spring 
I witnessed his small front flower-garden being 
arranged for the coming summer. Two small 
beds were being bordered by reversed empty glass 
bottles, the outer border being composed of wine-, 
the inner border of lemonade-bottles. It was a pity 
that all the labels had not been washed off; but 
still the arrangement illustrates the homely and 
economical, if not artistic, tastes of President Krtiger. 
It must not, however, be imagined that these bottles 
had been emptied in his establishment, as his honour 
is practically a total abstainer. 

The power and influence of the President are best 
exemplified at the deliberations of the Eaad. When 
great opposition is manifested to a measure which the 
President is anxious to pass, he will frequently adjourn 
the House to the following day, and in the meantime 
have an interview with the principal dissentients and 
afford them further reasons for its advocacy. Many of 
the Boer representatives are bewildered by financial 
schemes they do not understand, and by political moves 
which they think affect their rugged independence, and 
it is then that these personal explanations so largely 
contribute to the progress of business. 

The President is thoroughly in accord with his people 
as to the belief in direct action of a Special Providence 
guiding the fortune of the Transvaal ; and their present 
position is still a source of devout wonder to most of the 
Boers, many of whom really believe that at the last war 
they actually beat the whole British Army. Of course 
the President who has three times visited this country 
and the other officials are not under these hallucinations, 
but looking back at their early experiences much crudity 
of thought is readily explainable. 

An extract from the President's speech at Krugersdorp 
last year, when the memorial stone was laid of the new 
Government Buildings there, will readily show his strong 
feelings on this point *. " Burghers," he exclaimed, 

* The speeches recently made at the Paardekraal celebration last De- 
cember more strongly emphasize these views. 

D 



34 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

" when I cast an eye about this spot, I cannot but 
acknowledge the hand of the Supreme Being who rules 
the Universe. The wailing that was once so lamentable 
here, is now changed into sounds of joy and gladness. 
From the earliest days the Ruler of trie Universe has 
guided and guarded us. He has protected us from the 
rude attacks of barbarians when this land saw but few 
white people attacks which, if not providentially 
averted, would have extinguished us. Who does not 
remember in years gone by the moaning even of women 
and children when attacked by the savage Kafir hordes 1 
Who can forget when their husbands were fighting for 
their very lives, their wives brought branches of trees to 
make a fortification round their wagons and tents ? 
Who, I say, can forget the torture to which some of the 
voortreJckers of this country were exposed 1 " * Of course 
the Kafirs would take quite another view of these 
matters ; but like the successful man of business, so it 
is the victorious people who most often trace the hand 
of Providence. It seems easy, all the world over, to be 
thankful for great blessings, and much more difficult to 
appreciate those more frequent and untoward events 
which by some have been styled " blessings in dis- 
guise." 

I have remarked that the President has a slight 
weakness for adulation, and the following remarks were 
dished up in the Government Journal on the occasion 
of his last birthday (1890) : " While he has accom- 
plished much that in other countries would immortalize 
his name in song and idealize him, as it were, to future 

generations a section led by unscrupulous speculators 

and mean and degraded journalists, whose name it is 
not necessary to mention, will probably take no notice 
of the day at all." 

Many of the Boer farmers are now wealthy men 
not only in land but in cash owing to the large sums 
paid them by mining companies and syndicates for their 
auriferous farms. Frequently this cash is kept in some 

* As reported in the { Press ' of Pretoria, Sept. 20, 1890. 



THE BOER. 35 

sure hiding-place, for the Boer has not yet acquired a 
confidence in Banks ; and I have been assured, on good 
authority, that some of these primitive folk who have 
deposited sums at Banking institutions have called and 
asked to see their money. A ready cashier Avill at once 
produce a quantity of gold from his drawer, and con- 
fidence is restored. In former days little cash was 
handled by the Boers ; they possessed large farms or, 
rather, unworked tracts of land, but money was scarce, 
and heavy and laborious wagon transport was under- 
taken for small sums. 

In stature the Boer is tall and strongly built, but 
seldom stout. Living in one of the most healthy and 
invigorating climes I speak of the high veld he 
possesses, as a rule, a splendid constitution and a capacity 
for much more work than he cares to undertake; his 
ordinary spare and meagre diet prevents much aptitude 
for corpulency. For bathing he has no desire, and he 
is as economical in the use of soap as any white race 
found on the globe. 

It is generally thought, and especially in this country, 
that the Boers have a hatred for Englishmen. This is 
a fallacy, for, in spite of all that may be said and done, 
the Britisher is respected though not loved. His word 
is taken, his honesty accepted, but his arrogance is over- 
estimated. The Hollander, on the contrary, though so 
near by blood, is neither respected nor loved. English- 
men improve the country, even if their old colonial 
instincts prompt a desire to fly the old flag ; the Hol- 
lander is often a financial parasite. The Englishman will 
toil if he can reap : the Hollander will reap if possible, 
but not toil. It is the Hollanders in the Transvaal who 
dislike the English, and are alike detested by the Boers. 

The longer I remained in the country, the more 
absurd it appeared for the English to have lost it. 
England could have worked well with the Boers by 
proper management, and Hollanders would no longer 
have had the opportunity of exploiting them. But a 
Boer is a plain man: he can understand an English 
farmer but not an English aristocrat, and why a pious 

D2 



36 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL, 

straight man like Sir Bartle Frere could not manage the 
President is only explainable on faults of individuality 
and not of character. An Indian proconsul, with his 
acquired hauteur and social exclusiveness, which are so 
often more apparent than real, is no diplomatist for the 
Transvaal; the imported Hollander, however, is, and 
has been, too often a financial curse to the Republic. 

The Boer to-day is what may be called " smart " in 
the little business he does with the community, and this 
applies principally in the relation of sample to bulk of the 
produce he disposes on the market. But it must not 
be forgotten that he has learned much of this through 
bitter experience and from those who now speak the 
strongest on the subject. The Chosen People swarm in 
the Transvaal and have pitted their financial and com- 
mercial talents against the once unsophisticated farmer, 
with of course one result. One Israelite, whom I fre- 
quently saw in Pretoria, and of whom many good and 
other stories were told, had acted as produce agent for 
a Boer, whom he generally cheated of a few pounds, in 
the settlement. One day the Boer arrived indignant, 
and with a " ready reckoner " in his hand demanded a 
balance. "What book have you there 1 ?" enquired the 
clever Semite. "A ready reckoner." " Let me see it;" 
and then returning it contemptuously to the dissatisfied 
one, added with withering scorn, " why it is last year's 
edition you have got ! " The Boer retired mystified. 

The Boers seldom laugh, and have no gaiety ; they 
know neither the pleasures of music, literature, nor even 
the table ; they are fond of shooting, and are perhaps 
the finest shots in the world, though they have now 
nearly exterminated all the big game. No people have 
ever made the wagon such a home, or driven it with 
such skill. They possess all the virtues of home life, 
and are sober and thrifty, drinking perhaps less alcohol 
and smoking more tobacco than any other people. They 
have a character for inhospitality, as many a lone and 
weary traveller or prospector who has sought the shelter 
of their houses, or asked for food, will declare. But the 
Boer wished to be left alone, his early treks were made 



THE BOER. 37 

for solitude as well as freedom. He is amazed at the 
developments of the big towns and prefers the quietude 
of his farm. Other people are now supplanting him in 
the Republic ; his habits of retirement will prove his 
effacement, and his want of education will consign 
him to oblivion unless he treks still further on. If the 
records of these early treks could only be gathered 
before the chief actors, who are now old, have passed 
away, much zoological and ethnological information 
would be saved, often of no mean importance ; whilst 
deeds of endurance and heroism would be recorded, and 
a love of exploration disclosed, that would rival the 
doings of some of our modern travellers who write big 
books and receive great receptions. 

I have sought to be impartial to the Boer, whom I 
respect but cannot love ; and my principal remarks 
apply to the real Boers, the farmers, the dwellers on the 
plains, and not to the official Kriigers, Jouberts, Smits, 
and others, who really constitute the Boer aristocracy, 
and no more represent the average population than the 
inhabitants of the West-end of London are typical of the 
real population of England. The shadows are deepen- 
ing over these hardy farmers, the pen will conquer what 
the sword could not subdue, and they must be either 
absorbed in or fly from the busy mercantile population 
that is now surrounding and must ultimately dispossess 
them. In the nineteenth century there seems no room 
for this old pastoral life, especially when nature has 
baited the soil with auriferous deposits ; but I shall ever 
remember the family wagon of the Boer when my fancy 
recalls the peaceful wilderness of the veld. 




Chera progne. Male in nuptial plumage. 



CHAPTER III. 

PHASES OF NATURE ABOUND PRETORIA. 

Natural aspects in the dry -winter season. Orthoptera and Coleoptera. 
Commencement of the rainy season. Protective resemblance in butter- 
flies. Vegetable tanning-products. Survival of spined and hard- 
wooded trees in the struggle for existence with herbivorous fauna. 
Baboons. Bad roads. A Boer farm. Grass-fires. Dust-storm. 
Vast quantities of beetles under stones. Bad weather and heavy losses 
in live stock. Appearance of winged Termites. Swollen streams and 
their dangers. Accidental dangers in animal life. Birds of Prey. 

To a naturalist who has seen the glorious profusion 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 39 

of plant and animal life in the Eastern tropics, the 
bare, withered, treeless veld as it appears in the neigh- 
bourhood of Johannesburg and Pretoria at the end of 
the dry or winter season is most dispiriting. The few 
thorny acacias are almost universally destitute of leaves, 
the few plants that should be green are more or less 
covered with fine brown dust, and the only charm is 
the clear and invigorating air and the bright blue sky. 
Insect life is almost absent at this period. The first 
insect I saw was a large locust with red underwings, 
flying along a road in Pretoria, and chased by dogs who 
eventually secured it the strangest hunt I ever wit- 
nessed. At this period, the end of July, five butterflies 
alone enlivened the scene the ubiquitous Danais 
chrysippus was the most prevalent, a close ally to our 
English Clouded Yellow was found in Colias electro, 
with its two forms of the female sex, a small Teriad 
(Terias brigittcL}, the wide-ranging Pieris mesentina, and 
last, but not least, an old friend, known in England as 
the " Painted Lady " (Pyrameis cardui) *. 

A few orthopterous insects are even then found 
amongst the dried and scanty herbage of a cast-iron 
soil ; but these are few in number, still fewer in species, 
and poor in size and colour. The coleopterist now 
only finds his prey under stones near banks of streams 
or in other damp places, and it was in such spots that 
I secured rare species of Chlcenius, Tetragonoderus, and 
other good things, besides finding the large earwig 
(Lapidura riparia) sometimes seen in the south of 
England. Even these were, however, very scarce, and 
the searcher for Carabidse must have energy, patience, 
and experience. The stones must rest in spots neither 
too dry nor too damp for these small and usually 
brilliant beetles to seek a shelter beneath them, whilst 
the labour of turning over the numbers under which 
nothing is found becomes monotonous and fatiguing. 
On the dry and hard ground of the more open veld, the 
removal of a large stone or piece of rock frequently dis- 

* Excluding the Teriad, these butterflies are found all the year round. 



40 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

closes the retreating form of a small and elegant beetle 
down a narrow hole made in the irony soil. It is under 
these stones that vast colonies of ants are frequently 
found, and in the immediate neighbourhood of these 
it seems useless to search for beetles, save the small 
Pentaplatarthrus natalensis, which, as well known, is a 
messmate of the ants. Two species of "Bombardier 
Beetles " are not uncommon ; one of these, Pheropsophus 
litigiosus, is found under and amongst stones by the 
banks of streams. When handled its peculiar and 
protective anal explosion gave a distinct sound, and a 
considerable puif of smoke was emitted*; the resultant 
excretion thereby not only deeply stained my fingers, 
but actually in one case caused a feeling of a smart 
burn which lasted for fully a minute. The stain on my 
fingers was indelible for five days. 

One naturally became anxious for the promised rains, 
which would transform this sterile scene, and afford 
some illustration of African insect-life. On August 5th 
the clouds gathered about 4 P.M., and a strong wind 
arose bringing clouds of dust from Pretoria, and a 
moderate shower of rain. But this was of short dura- 
tion, and in half an hour the wind blew strongly from 
the opposite quarter and carried the dust back again. 
This was premature rain, and no more denoted the 
arrival of the wet season than a warm January day in 
England is a harbinger of the spring. But in August 
the nights became warmer, trees commenced budding, 
and in a few places the veld showed signs of 
fresh life. In some spots a few more butter- 
flies now appeared. Junonia cebrene and Hamanumida 
dcedalus took wing, and the last named afforded me an 
opportunity of observation which supplemented, if not 
corrected, some previous statements. Since Darwin 
taught naturalists to seek and read the story of cause 
and effect, where genera and species had alone been 
formerly observed, butterflies have been much studied 

* It is possible for these Bombardier Beetles to have their artillery arti- 
ficially discharged after death, as I once found on pinning some dead 
specimens. 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 41 

and with great effect on the questions of " mimicry " 
and " protective resemblance." It has been eloquently 
remarked by Mr. Bates, that on their wings " nature 
writes as on a tablet the story of the modifications of 
species, so truly do all changes of the organization register 
themselves thereon " *, and a cabinet of butterflies in 
the possession of a competent naturalist now not only 
exhibits what used simply to be called the " works of 
nature," but absolutely in many cases shows how nature 
works. Hamanumida dcedalus, formerly and generally 
quoted by its better-known synonym Aterica meleagris, 
has been recorded as a good instance of " protective 
resemblance." Mr. Wallace has recently stated that 
it "always settles on the ground with closed wings, 
which so resemble the soil of the district that it can 
with difficulty be seen, and the colour varies with the 
soil in different localities. Thus, specimens from Sene- 
gambia were dull brown, the soil being reddish sand 
and iron-clay ; those from Calabar and Cameroons were 
light brown with numerous small white spots, the soil 
of those countries being light brown clay with small 
quartz pebbles; whilst in other localities where the 
colours of the soil were more varied, the colours of the 
butterfly varied also. Here we have variation in a 
single species, which has become specialized in certain 
areas to harmonize with the colour of the soil f . But in 
the Transvaal this butterfly never settles on the ground 
with closed wings, and the only example sent from 
Durban by Colonel Bowker to Mr. Trimen was described 
as " settled on a footpath with wings expanded " $. I 
saw and captured a large number of specimens, and 
always found them resting with wings expanded, and 
nearly always on greyish-coloured rocks or slaty-hued 
paths, with which the colour of the upper surface of 
their wings wonderfully assimilated. Large tracts of 
bare ground of a reddish-brown colour exist with which 
the under surface of the wings would be in perfect 

* ' The Naturalist on the Amazons.' 

t ' Darwinism,' p. 207. 

t ' South African Butterflies,' vol. i. p. 310. 



42 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

unison; but though I watched for months to see a 
specimen thus situated, and with its wings vertically 
closed, I never succeeded in doing so. 

Thus, if the reports as to its habits in Senegambia, 
Calabar, and Cameroons are correct, we have not only 
a change of habit with difference of latitude, but also 
what I have elsewhere ventured to describe as an 
instance of " Compound Protective Kesemblance " *. 
For we see that while in Senegambia, Calabar, and 
Cameroons, where (according to report) the butterfly 
always settles with wings vertically closed, and which 
" so closely resemble the soil of the district, that it can 
with difficulty be seen, and the colour varies with the 
soil in different localities," in the Transvaal and Natal 
it rests with horizontally-expanded wings f , by which its 
protection is almost equally insured by the assimilative 
colour of the same to the rocks and paths on which 
it is usually found. My friend Mr. Trimen, with 
whom I discussed this matter, suggested that I should 
observe whether the upperside might be protective in 
the wet season, and the underside in the dry ; but what- 
ever may be the case elsewhere, I saw that its habits 
were uniform in the Transvaal in both the dry and wet 
seasons. 

I was afforded a good opportunity of watching the 
gradual approach of spring and summer, with their 
transforming effects in the production of plant and 
insect life, as business weekly compelled me to drive 
some 15 miles out from Pretoria to a Boer farm, on 
the hills of which grew a tree capable of supplying bark 
for tanning-purposes. This was called the " sugar-tree ;" 
but the bark was coarse and possessed little strength. 
The best and strongest tanning-material in the Transvaal 
appears to be the leaf of a tree (Colpoon compressum)$, 

* ' Nature,' vol. xlii. p. 390. 

t Although as a general rule the species of Nymphalidee, to which family 
this butterfly belongs, do rest with vertically closed wings, the species of the 
tropical American genus Ageronia have a similar habit to H, dcedalus as 
observed in the Transvaal. 

| For the exact identification of this species, I am indebted to the Curator 
of the Durban Botanic Gardens. 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 43 

called by the Boers " Berg has." It is found scattered 
about in the woody portions of the country, but grows 
most plentifully at least it was there from whence we 
obtained our largest supplies on the hills of the 
Waterberg district. The sugar-bark was obtained on 
the farm I have mentioned, which was situated in what 
was known as " Ward Crocodile River," and at no equal 
distance from Pretoria could a greater diversity of 
scenery be found. I drove in a " spider " drawn by what 
appeared to be two sorry nags ; but in this country it is 
such looking animals which show an endurance and 
aptitude for the peculiar " roads," not to be equalled 
by better horses at home. The first part of the 
journey was along the somewhat good road which crosses 
the level veld towards the Crocodile River; but after 
an hour's drive we turned off, and leaving the plain, 
struck across country for the mountains or kopjes on 
the left. At this spot, on a clear day, these ranges 
could be seen rising one above another in the distance, 
the farthest only seen in greyish outline, and a blue sky 
and fresh air prompted that joyous feeling that moun- 
tain slopes produce under similar circumstances in all 
parts of the world. The shadows of these bare hills are 
thrown one upon another in an almost artificial manner, 
sometimes in colour nearly black, and in shape fre- 
quently an almost perfect parallelogram, as though the 
slopes were a screen on which a solar lantern threw its 
magic shapes. The road now becomes much worse, 
and large rocky stones are freely strewn about the 
track over which we drive. Trees are more plentiful, 
but are principally long-spined acacias and " iron " 
and other hard-wooded species. These trees are the 
silent witnesses of what was once the head-quarters of 
the ruminant mammalia, now practically exterminated 
or driven back by the incessant warfare waged against 
them by the Boer farmers, and by the opening up of 
the country to a mining and mercantile civilization. 
There was a time when a deadly struggle went on 
between the plants and trees of this region and the 
vast herds of herbivorous animals that swarmed over it. 



44 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

These long-spined acacias and hard-wooded trees alone 
possessed an adequate resistance to such attacks, and 
their survival proclaims that they were the fittest in the 
long struggle for existence which in that phase has now 
passed away. To-day their danger is from the grass-fires 
of the Boer or in their capacity for supplying fuel. 

We meet the river which in its serpentine course has 
twice to be crossed the first time at the base of a 
quartzite cliff which affords a dwelling-place for a small 
colony of baboons *, one of which, that has been late in 
returning from his nightly excursions, I have sometimes 
surprised early in the day. It was at this spot also 
where one could meet and secure a specimen of the 
migrant " European Bee-eater " (Merops apiaster), a 
bird of the gayest plumage to be found in the neigh- 
bourhood ; whilst it was here and beyond my reach that 
I have watched the wild and majestic flight of a 
Charades butterfly, a species I was never able to secure. 
This river, so clear and shallow during the dry season, 
was sometimes found impassable during the rains. Our 
way becomes more tortuous as we ascend and descend 
the ridges of the higher ground till we reach about 
the roughest piece of road that man ever drove over, 
or that can be surpassed in South-African driving. A 
hill with a surface of broken rock and bearing a few 
trees has to be crossed ; the road, if it can be called 
one, rises steeply up one side, crosses the crest, and 
abruptly descends the other extremity. The whole way is 
one mass of broken quartzite jumbled together in titanic 
undulation, and one hardly knew at which to be most 
thankful for having driven up one side, or safely 
travelled down the other. A narrow road ensues, with 
trees overhead, a river beneath on one side, and the 
quartzite hills rising high and rough-hewn around us. 
Great blocks of rock strewn here and there, now peace- 
fully surrounded by herbage, tell the story of the wild 
crash in which at some bygone time, they have broken 
away from the parent block above and plunged head- 

* These kill the young sheep, and are therefore assiduously shot by the 
farmers. 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 45 

long. It was on these rocky cliffs that I made my first 
acquaintance with the EuphorMce and Aloes, so typical 
of the South- African flora. 

The farm is soon reached in all its simplicity. Twenty 
thousand acres, including hills, is not a bad stretch of 
country for one man to own ; and when it is considered 
that nearly the whole of this tract is in the same con- 
dition as it was when first allotted at the time of the 
early Boer settlement, with the exception that all the 
large game, including lions and leopards, are now 
slaughtered or driven back, a peculiar feature of the 
Transvaal problem is apparent. Sitting on one of the 
hills which surround this homestead, and looking at the 
lonely grandeur of the scene, one wonders why these 
Boers, under the laws of the average of genius, have 
not produced a Robert Burns or the founder of some 
new religion. It was on these hills that our Kafirs 
felled the trees and stripped the bark, and looked 
forward to my weekly visit with their wages, as " one 
day further on " their return to their kraal with the cash 
sufficient to negotiate the arrangement for another 
wife. 

Towards the end of August the nights became 
decidedly warmer, though no rain fell. Dragonflies 
somewhat suddenly appeared hovering over small ponds, 
of which Crocothemis erythrcea and the giant Anax 
mauricianus were the most common, two oak trees 
growing near the Church Square were approaching fair 
leaf, and the universal peach-bloom gave a warm colour 
to the whole scene. Small patches of Sedum, sp.?, were 
blooming on the adamantine veld, and the representa- 
tives of butterfly life were increased by the appearance of 
some species of Acrcea and of Papilio demoleiis. A few 
bugs ( Lygceidce) could now be obtained by sweeping ; but 
the rains were still absent, and the full spring was not yet, 
though small water-beetles (Aidonogyms abdominalis] in 
the noonday sun skimmed the surface of the clear brooks, 
on the shady banks of which quantities of the Maiden- 
hair Fern (Adiantum, sp.)were now growing luxuriantly. 
During this dry cool season of the year many strange 



46 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

insects are found in a semi-torpid condition under 
stones. In these situations I have found Carabida, 
Staphylinidce, Paussidce, Curculionidoe, Chrysomelidce, 
Gallerucidce, and Coccinellidce among beetles, and Pen- 
tatomidce and Pyrrhocoridce among Hemiptera, but few 
in numbers, and at this season the Pretorian province of 
the Transvaal is most uninviting to the entomologist. 
The weather is still like spring at home, the nights and 
mornings quite cold, and it is difficult to believe that 
one is living in Southern Africa. 

With the advent of September the thorny acacias 
were found to be thickly covering with leaves, and the 
long white thorns being thus hidden, their striking 
protection was scarcely visible. It is only when these 
trees are bare of leaf that it can be clearly appreciated 
what impregnable objects they are to any herbivorous 
animal. The grass-tires were now being pushed on by 
the Boers, and I frequently noticed that blackened 
areas of some miles in extent, often embracing several 
hills, replaced what quite recently resembled in colour a 
field of ripe oats. The veld has thus three aspects the 
dull ochraceous hue of the dry season, the blackened 
tint following the spring fires, and the green coloration 
of the summer. Numbers of insects in their immature 
stages, as well as small reptiles, must be destroyed by 
these fires, and, as remarked before, small seedling trees 
have little chance of reaching that stage of growth and 
hardihood necessary to survive the conflagration. 

During September some of the acacias bloomed, con- 
sequent upon the undoubtedly higher temperature, and 
these flowers were visited by swarms of Diptera; but 
still scarcely a beetle was to be seen, excepting a few 
Scarabceidce. The butterfly list was increased by 
Hypanis ilithyia, Precis cloantha, and Catopsilia florella, 
whilst Anoplocnemis curvipes, on the wing, gave promise 
that Hemiptera would soon be seen, though represen- 
tatives of various families of this order, as well as of 
Coleoptera, could still be found, but only under stones. 
On Sept. 25th a heavy shower at midnight gave hopes 
of the advent of the rains ; but it did not last long, and 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 47 

in the morning scarcely a sign of wet was to be seen. 
It was not till October 4th that the rainy season really 
commenced. All day the weather had been close and 
oppressive, and those who suffered from weak chests 
had found much inconvenience. In the afternoon 
occurred our first Dust-storm, and that of unusual 
severity. No rain had fallen for five months, and the 
consequent accumulation of dust in the town and on 
the neighbouring roads can be easily imagined. It was 
under these circumstances that a heavy south-westerly 
gale broke upon us, and a vast and majestic cloud of 
tons of dust and small stones rose high in the air, and 
rapidly reaching the centre of Pretoria, soon cleared the 
streets both of passenger and vehicular traffic *. Rain 
fell for about an hour, vivid lightning subsequently 
illumined a particularly dark night, and nature pro- 
claimed that the long-continued drought was broken 
up. 

It was on the day following this storm that I visited 
some rocky debris lying under an acacia-tree on the 
open veld. To my surprise I found under these stones 
thousands of two small species of beetles (Eutelidce) 
belonging to the genus Adoretus (A. luteipes and an 
unidentified sp.), in a perfectly dormant condition, 
though the light and warmth of the sun soon aroused 
them, and they made for fresh shelter. Three weeks 
previously, and again a week later, I examined this spot 
and turned over the same stones, but the beetles were 
on both of these occasions only represented by a few 
specimens, and not by the prodigious quantities which 
I have described. It appears that this vast aggrega- 
tion was preparatory to their segregation and dispersal 
over the surrounding area, as subsequently during the 
evenings these Adoreti, like moths, flew into rooms, 
attracted by the light. 

Showers of rain fell on the days that immediately 
succeeded the storm, and the wind shifting to the east 
blew a gale and was bitterly cold. In the evening the 

* In Johannesburg houses were unroofed. 



48 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

streets were nearly empty a fire indoors would have 
been comfortable, and a heavy ulster was found none too 
warm. At night thunder rolled, and the rain falling 
with a rattle on our roof of corrugated iron effectually 
banished sleep. In a few days reports came in from all 
sides of the Transvaal detailing the severity of the 
weather. From Barberton we learned that the intense 
heat prevailing there for some time had broken up, and 
a furious gale had ensued, followed by heavy rain and 
intense cold, the surrounding mountains being snow- 
capped. From Ermelo news came of a heavy snow-storm 
and anticipations of severe losses in live stock. In the 
Klip River country the snow also fell, and one farmer 
lost four hundred sheep and twenty horses within 
twenty-four hours. At Lydenburg snow fell in some 
instances two inches deep, though this weather was 
pronounced to be an unusual phenomenon. Between 
Pretoria and Barberton, on the high veld, I was assured 
that thousands of sheep and oxen were lying killed by 
the cold acting on their present half-fed and poor con- 
dition. All the month of October was wet and usually 
cold ; the veld had become perfectly saturated, and we 
now only anticipated a clear sky to enable the increasing 
strength of the solar rays to act as the magician's wand 
in the transformation scene of Nature. 

During one of these rainy October days the air was 
filled about noon with numbers of a small winged form 
of the Termite, or White Ant (Termes, sp.), which 
pursued a slow flight through the drenching rain. I 
found them emerging in continuous columns through 
small holes on the level veld, which scarcely allowed for 
the passage of more than one, or at most two, at a time, 
when they immediately took wing and hovered around. 
They were, however, being devoured by the large and 
handsome frog (Rana adspersa), which I had not seen 
before, and which also issued from holes on the veld. 
These frogs stationed themselves near the holes from 
which the termites emerged, and literally gorged them- 
selves to repletion. A smaller and duller-coloured toad 
(Bufo regularis) and a handsome green and spotted frog 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 49 

also assisted at the banquet. The termites began 
to issue about noon, and were still flying, though 
in less numbers, at sunset ; but none were seen 
the following morning, and the toads and frogs had 
likewise disappeared, though it was still cloudy and 
wet. I caught many of these termites, but, though I 
put them in a strong cyanide bottle at once, they almost 




Bufo reyularis. Rana adspersa. 
BATBACHIANS DEVOUBING TEBMITES. 

invariably dispossessed themselves of their wings before 
death. About a month afterwards (in November) a 
much larger species (Termes angustatus] as suddenly 
and in equal quantity appeared. This time they were 
largely destroyed by the Cape Wagtails (Motacilla 
capensis)., which, however, fortunately for the termites, 
were in far less numbers than formerly, as they appeared 



50 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

to have left for their breeding-grounds. A small terrier 
dog in our possession also played havoc with the ants, 
which it not only caught, but eat in large numbers. 

After a fortnight's intermittent rain, the weather 
became sufficiently favourable, or rather the roads were 
once more passable, for another visit to my Kafirs at the 
Bark farm. A new world of animal life now met the 
view as I drove along the roads, which in many places 
were composed of marshy mud, where on my last visit 
I raised clouds of dust. In Coleoptera giant Anthias 
(Anthia thoracica and A. maxillosa) were seen foraging 
about, and the huge Manticora tuber culata was very 
abundant, whilst Polyhirma macilenta ran about the 
roads where the surface was sandy and gritty. In this 
way I frequently stopped and obtained some fine 
species. In the wooded tracts I found Cetonias on the 
wing, many adhering to the leaves of trees, and one 
(Diplognatha helrcea) even on the long stalks of last 
season's dried but now damp grasses. In the wet but 
scant herbage Blue Cranes (Anthropoides paradisea), 
usually in pairs, searched for the orthopterous insects 
which now almost daily became more plentiful, whilst 
the Widow-bird (Cher a progne) had now again deve- 
loped its long tail-feathers for the breeding-season, and 
frequented the long sedgy grasses that grew on the 
marshy portions of the veld. These long tail-feathers 
appear to offer a direct hindrance to flight, and the 
birds always seemed to proceed with difficulty and great 
encumbrance, like a Court Lady dragging a heavy 
train. 

Nature frequently reminds mankind of her forces, and 
she did so with these heavy rains : small spruits became 
torrents, and insignificant rivers raging floods. As usual, 
accounts slowly came into Pretoria for it is the press 
which allows civilized man to rise above tradition and 
hearsay, and newspapers give to prosaic life the romance 
of current history. The "Six-mile Spruit," a stream 
through which the coaches drive, and at a distance from 
Pretoria which its name specifies, came down with a 
suddenness that has made it famous among the streams 




E2 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 53 

of the Transvaal. It came down with such force, with 
a quantity of water so enormous, and so swiftly, that 
upwards of a hundred oxen that were feeding on the 
banks of the river were swept away and drowned. 
Carcasses, which were estimated at about 150, were 
found when the waters subsided, either w r ashed out on 
the banks or stuck in trees at the turns of the river, 
so that the Kafirs and vultures had an opportunity for 
high banquet. But besides oxen numerous Kafirs, mostly 
cattle-herds, were swept away by the flood ; bodies were 
seen floating down the stream, and others were found 
on the banks. A buck- wagon with a span of eight 
mules and two horses arrived at the spruit towards 
evening. No sooner did the wagon reach the middle 
of the stream than it was completely turned upside 
down and swept away, and the bodies of the mules and 
horses were found the following day entangled in the 
harness. A heavy hailstorm passed along the valley of 
the river, and the hail floated down in such quantity 
that large blocks of ice, several feet in thickness, were 
carried down the stream. 

One day, in the early part of November, I was able 
to appreciate the sudden rising of these Transvaalian 
streams. Behind our w r orks, and crossing the veld, was 
a narrow deeply waterworn river-bed, at the bottom of 
which usually flowed a shallow streamlet of not more 
than a few inches deep, and which I easily strode across 
in the morning. By 3 P.M. this was a roaring rushing 
current some ten feet deep. This was caused by two 
very heavy falls of rain, the first one continuing from 
about 12 to 12.45 P.M., the second and heaviest lasting 
from about 2 to 3 P.M. The roads were flooded, the 
water poured down the sides of the hills in streams, and 
a roaring noise could be heard some distance from what 
was only a few hours previously a shallow brook. The 
water, which w T as of a deep reddish clayey hue, boiled, 
whirled, and tore down its bed, the many bends of which 
caused whirlpools and some nasty backAvaters. Nowhere 
wider than 20 feet, and generally narrower, it would 
have been certain death to have fallen therein. By 



54 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

4 P.M. the principal rush of water had drained down, 
and, though the river was still full, it was now silent, 
and by the next morning it had almost resumed its 
ordinary obscurity. Thus sudden and dangerous are the 
results of these heavy rains. . Insects in numbers must 
have been carried away, and some were found in a wet 
and exhausted condition clinging to low shrubs, and 
I thus obtained an orthopterous insect (Pycnodictya 
adustum) and the rare Dragonfly (Tramea basilaris), 
neither of which I ever found again. It was interesting 
to observe the different sculpture in many parts of the 
banks after this visitation, and one could now under- 
stand how it was that the usually shallow brook flowed 
at the bottom of so deeply an excavated river-bed. As 
November advanced flowers and insects became more 
plentiful, and the most abundant beetle was the large 
heteromerous red-striped Psammodes striatus. These 
beetles, when they first appeared, were most abundant 
on the roads which crossed the veld, and, though 
globular and ungainly in shape, yet actively ran on 
their high legs, but were so numerous that we crushed 
many under the wheels and horses' hoofs as we drove 
along. I believe that these form a considerable portion 
of the prey of the different species of Anthia, and also 
of the Manticorce, which actively patrol these spots ; and 
in the dry season I had often been puzzled to explain 
the number of empty shells of the Psammodes which 
I found strewn about. Beautifully marked Longicorn 
beetles enlivened the scene, and about this time I was 
much struck with the numbers of two species of Weevils 
(Polyclaeis cquestris and P.^inereis), that literally covered 
the acacia and other shrubs to be found on the veld. 
These two species were always found together, and it 
was only because the sexes of each could be found, and 
often in cop., that my doubts as to their being one 
species were dispelled. 

When we first arrived and saw the long white spines 
of the acacias, I involuntarily wondered why no signs 
were seen of the larder of the Shrikes, of which there 
are a fair number of species in the Transvaal. I at 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 55 

length came upon their haunts, and, strange to say, a 
frog was the first animal seen impaled. I afterwards 
found that' small lizards were very common victims, and 
the black-and-white shrike (Lanim collaHs), the most 
abundant species in our neighbourhood, was as fearless 
as it was predatory. I once followed one of these birds 
amongst some trees to see what it held in its beak, and 
approached close to the shrike before it took flight, when, 
after impaling a large mole-cricket close before my eyes, 
it flew away to another tree in the vicinity. But nature is 
"red in tooth and claw"; the small clump of shrubs 
that bore these impaled lizards were visited by numbers 
of the previously mentioned weevils, many of which 
fell victims to the numerous spiders that inhabited 
cocoon-like structures and. spread their webs across the 
ends of the small branches. Accidents also happen to 
all living things alike. I once saw a weevil (Polyclaeis 
cinereis), when suddenly alighting from flight on the 
stems of an acacia, run a spine through one of its 
underwings and hang suspended. I liberated this 
unfortunate after watching its ineffectual struggles 
for some time, and if it had eventually extricated 
itself from the thorn, it could only have done so at the 
expense of a mutilated wing. On a subsequent occasion 
I saw a migratory locust strike in its flight the barbed 
wire used in fencing, and impale itself by driving a 
spike through the front part of its head. These un- 
toward events occur much more frequently than we 
suppose; man has not a monopoly of the miseries of 
life. Amongst the Vertebrata, if the sportsman or 
naturalist examined the skeletons of his prizes, he 
would occasionally find the traces of past fractures and 
dislocations ; and even amongst insects this can be 
discerned, but usually, or most clearly, in the large 
Orthoptera, whose long limbs are particularly liable to 
the accidents of field and flood, and the size of which 
renders the marks of these misadventures more visible 
than is the case among smaller insects. 

Many birds of prey visit the immediate neighbourhood 
of Pretoria, and are a considerable danger to young 



56 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



poultry reared in open situations. The most common of 
these depredators is the Rufous Buzzard (Buteo deser- 
torum) and an occasional Yellow-billed Kite (Milvus 
(pqyptius). These birds, especially the former, were par- 




JSuteo desertomm. Post of Observation. 



ticularly numerous about the month of December, and 
were a great source of trouble to the small squatters on 
the veld, who erect their shanties (for no other word 
will adequately express the poverty of these dwellings) 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 57 

on the outskirts of the town. Most of these people 
kept a few poultry, and their young chickens and 
ducklings too often served as food for the active and 
rapacious birds. I skinned several specimens that 
were shot about this time, and they were lined with 
layers of yellow fat, similar to what is found in an over- 
fed Christmas goose. These buzzards were particularly 
fond of sitting on the telegraph-poles that crossed the 
veld, or using the tops of ant-hills as a post of obser- 
vation, and were a terror to all the domestic birds of 
the neighbourhood. The dread of impending evil sits 
as heavily on the minds of these ducks and fowls as the 
fear of poverty chills the heart of so many men ; and I 
once witnessed this instinctive or inherited terror, in 
the wild alarm shown by a brood of young ducklings at 
the shadow and sudden appearance of a tame pigeon 
just above them. This poor pigeon unwittingly caused a 
Buzzard panic, and proved unmistakably the frequency 
of a real danger, though giving at the time a false 
alarm. 




DENDEITIC MARKINGS IN QUARTZITE. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA (continued). 

Geological features. Dendritic markings. The highlands and the sea. 
Heavy rains and floods. A protected butterfly and its enemy. 
Mimicry. Cicadas. Species found both in England and the Transvaal. 
The Secretary-bird. Vultures. Locust-swarm. The Paauw and 
other Bustards. The Monitor. Partridges. Evolution and struggle 
for existence. 

THE geological feature of the country surrounding Pre- 
toria is quartzite, through which the granites frequently 
outcrop, as may be best observed by following some of 
the spruits and smaller watercourses. This quartzite 
also largely contributes to the rocky mass of the Maga- 
liesberg mountains, which form so considerable a shelter 
to Pretoria, as I had a good opportunity of observing 
during the blasting-operations by which a carriage road 
was made through the rocky defile called the Daas 
Poort. Dynamite was the agent used to rend the 
stratified quartzite, and in the blocks thus detached and 
broken up dendritic or arborescent markings abounded. 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 59 

These results of the infiltration of oxide of manganese 
so strikingly resemble the impressions of ferns as to 
make one believe, on seeing them for the first time, 
that veritable fossils had been found. On one after- 
noon, whilst entomologizing in a river-bed just beneath 
the field of these operations and unaware that a number 
of mines were just ready for explosion, we were only 
observed and warned just in time to enable us to retreat 
in a shower of small rocky debris, and thus to fulfil the 
parts of spectators and not victims. 

Some surface auriferous deposits may be found around 
Pretoria ; but these extend to no depth, and gold is 
practically absent as a mining industry, though thirty- 
five miles south is found the celebrated Main reef 
which has created Johannesburg. Pretoria must, in a 
mining sense, rely on its argentiferous copper and lead, 
with which is also found antimony. No observer who 
stands upon or looks at the mass of the Transvaalian 
quartzose matter can help speculating on its origin. 
That it was due to the erosion and disintegration of 
some former vast accumulation of granitic rocks is plain 
geological interpretation ; but where were these granitic 
masses situate I * 

There is a charm in life on this high tableland six 
thousand feet above the sea and which really forms the 
heart of the Transvaal ; but to all it does not convey the 
same impression. A recent lady traveller has remarked, 
" to me it seems quite natural that the centre of a con- 
tinent is its healthiest point, for one is furthest away 
from the detestable moisture of our vaunted sea-breezes. 
Of course we praise sea and sea-breezes here because we 
cannot get away from them " f. But clever sayings are 
not always of universal application. It is easy to under- 
stand the physical basis of thought, and how a particular 
constitution may be vigorous in the Carpathians and 
depressed by the sea ; but in the Transvaal the recurrent 
hills and plains of the tableland only seem to accentuate 

* Mr. C. J. Alford has recently remarked : " Certainly the land-surface 
from which these materials are derived has long ages ago been obliterated 
from the surface of the earth." (' Geological Features of the Transvaal,' 
p. 14). 

t Miss Dowie, British Association, 1890. 



60 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

the loss of the sea that we have left behind. I have 
frequently driven over the grandest undulating scenery 
in the most clear and faultless weather ; but the feeling 
always was that behind yonder headland must be the sea. 
A long residence in England impresses its particular 
features of physiography upon the mind, and I found I 
was apt to read nature with a similar insular bias as that 
with which one studies foreign politics or observes the 
different arrangements in family life of other branches 
of humanity. I know it is usual to overpraise the sea, 
to feel the despair of a long voyage when left alone 
with it, to curse the monotony of the view from the 
seaside lodging when we have ceased to curb our im- 
patience of quiet ; but still our thoughts travel back to 
our first love, and the rough health wafted from the 
ocean is not altogether replaced by the invigorating at- 
mosphere of the hills. Beside which there is a stillness 
appertaining to the " everlasting " hills compared with 
the troubled waters of the ocean. Experience a night 
at sea with a night on the veld. The stars shine 
above both, there is the same silence, the same quiet ; 
but there is a rigidity of thought amidst the solitude 
of the plains and hills compared with the poetic 
buoyancy produced by the sea. Amidst the solitude 
of the first our mind reverts to the genesis of creeds ; 
on the water we breathe sonnets and listen to old 
Pagan music. 

The summer of 1890-91 was remarkable for the 
heaviest rains that had occurred for many years. As 
we read in the papers of the phenomenal winter at home, 
so we were assured that the continuous summer down- 
pour we experienced was equally unusual in South 
Africa. Towards the end of January the rivers were 
frequently flooded and dangerous, the roads in many 
places almost impassable, our homeward mails frequently 
missed the steamer at Cape Town, and our mails from 
home were uncertain of delivery. It was in this month 
that three Dutch anglers, who were sleeping in their 
wagons on the banks of the Pienaars Kiver, within five 
yards of the stream, were swept away by a sudden flood or 
"coming down" of the stream, and the papers frequently 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 61 

recorded other fatalities from all sides. In February the 
bridge at the Six-mile Spruit was washed away, and all 
that month and during March fatalities to life and loss of 
property were of intermittent record. Outside the Re- 
public the weather was equally bad; from Natal we heard 
that at Umbilo many Indian huts were destroyed and the 
Indians had to take refuge in trees, whilst in Durban 
itself we learned that at the end of one week in March 
for forty-eight hours there had been an exceptionally 
heavy fall of rain, the heaviest for twenty years. On 
the Sunday the people were practically weather-bound. 
There were no services in the churches in the morning, 
the streets and tram-lines were seriously damaged and 
the Berea tram-traffic was partly stopped. Perhaps the 
most vivid illustration of the effects of these river-floods 
in South Africa was obtained from Uitenhage, where one 
noon, whilst the Sunday river was rushing down with 
terrific force, the spectators on the bank observed in 
midstream a cart with two horses harnessed to it, dead, 
and dragging behind, as if fastened to the conveyance, 
was the body of a white man, which none could recog- 
nize as the ghastly flotsam sped swiftly to the sea. The 
last fall of rain before the dry season commenced 
occurred at Pretoria on May 12. 

Flying all the year round is the ubiquitous butterfly 
Danais chrysippus, which is found over the whole of 
Africa, in South-eastern Europe, and generally dis- 
tributed throughout Asia. 1). chrysippus is also 
possessed of distasteful qualities which render it un- 
palatable to the usual insectivorous enemies, and thus 
affords an instance of a thoroughly "protected" butterfly. 
Its bright colour and slow flight show that it is subject 
to no fear of attack, or in the struggle for existence to 
which all living things have been and are, in a less 
degree, still engaged, this appearance and habit would 
have proved positive dangers to its long survival. It is 
not attacked by birds or other insectivorous animals, 
and is absolutely refused by them as food when kept in 
captivity. It is wonderfully tenacious of life, and 
specimens, after being pinched and pinned, have been 
seen, on the pins being withdrawn, to fly off in a 



62 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL, 

nonchalant manner. Even when a dried and neglected 
museum-specimen, mites have avoided this butterfly, 
while they have destroyed other insects in the same 
box or cabinet-drawer. Its caterpillar feeds on a genus 
of Asclepiadacese (Gomphocarpus) which is everywhere 
abundant and also possesses distasteful qualities, so 
that its whole existence seems to be environed by 
natural chevaux de frise. How is it, then, that this 
insect does not positively swarm 1 is the question I 
frequently asked myself when watching the numbers 
which everywhere pursued this highly protected life. 
There must evidently be some great check at work, 
or the propagation of the species must result in pro- 
digious flights, which would surpass anything to be 
seen in the whole Rhopalocerous order. I am inclined 
to think that these highly protected butterflies, which 
experience an immunity from attack on account of 
distasteful qualities or resemblance to some inanimate 
object or other protected insect, may have some inherent 
weakness or danger which produces great mortality in 
their early stages and that the wonderful protections we 
observe thus only enable them to escape extinction. 
This view would help to explain how it is that the extra- 
ordinary guises by which natural selection has enabled so 
many insects to escape the attacks of their enemies have 
not led to an enormous increase in their numbers. It is 
the weak that require protection, and like consumptive 
patients who live by escaping the rigors of a northern 
winter by visiting a warmer clime, but still possess the 
inherent weakness of their system, so nature grants 
these insects immunity from one danger, which allows 
them a possibility of surviving another. We know by 
the great gaps between the continuity of some species 
in the same genus how many must have reached 
oblivion in the struggle for existence, and I look on 
these " protected " insects as surviving by such means 
some incipient mortality of which we are at present 
ignorant, or their numbers must indefinitely increase. 
I carefully watched the Danais in the endeavour to find 
some danger to its life and the means by which its 




Hemisaga pradatoria, n. sp. 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 65 

increase was curtailed ; but though generally unsuccessful, 
I did discover what I believe up to the present to be its 
only recorded enemy. This is a moderately large or- 
thopterous insect (Hemisaga prcedatoria, n. sp.), which I 
found lurking among the tops of tall flowering grasses, 
to which it has a considerable assimilative resemblance 
and which in this case enables it to secure its prey. 
The Danais hovers about, or partly settles on, the flowers 
and is then secured by the Hemisaga, which, in one 
instance, I found dismembering a freshly-caught speci- 
men *. It is just possible, during the dry season, 
when insect-life is very scarce, that some insectivorous 
birds may, in a somewhat famished condition, make an 
experimental dash at a Danais. At that season I 
captured a specimen which was certainly mutilated 
as though by the bill of a bird, for the wings were 
not bitten symmetrically, as is the case when the 
attack takes place by a lizard or mantis, whilst the 
butterfly is reposing with its wings vertically closed f . 

As is well known, the female of Ilypolimnas misippits 
is a wonderful mimic of this butterfly. To an expe- 
rienced eye the Ilypolimnas may be distinguished from 
the Danais by its flight ; but this is scarcely noticed 
without both species are known to be present and 
attention is thus directed. So close is the resemblance 
that well knowing both insects, I was not aw y are of the 
female Ilypolimnas being present with the Danaids till 
I observed one in copula with its dark blue male. A 
purely English lepidopterist, not knowing these facts in 
mimicry could cross the veld and merely observe that 
D. clirysippus was very abundant. But these mimicking 
resemblances, by which the female IJypolimn as has found 
protection by being mistaken for the uneatable Danais 
and avoided accordingly, are even still more complicated. 
D. chrysippus has two varietal forms, alcippus. Cram., 
and dori-ppus, Klug, both of which occur in South 
Africa and both of which I found in the Transvaal. 

* When in Natal that old lepidopterological veteran, Col. Bowker, informed 
me that he had frequently observed the Mantidee to prey on butterflies. 

t I am bound to affirm that this view, formerly advocated by my friend 
Prof. Meldola, was at the time contested by myself. 

F 



66 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

These varieties are very scarce, but both are also mimicked 
elsewhere by the female Hypolimnas. The same thing 
occurs in India, where, however, the mimicker of the 
var. dorippus is somewhat abundant, while the mimicked 
form is very seldom seen. Thus we have a butterfly 
mimicking a form which is almost extinct, and to a 
superficial observer weakening the theory which explains 
these anomalies. But it is necessary in all these cases 
to carry the mind back to the time when the butter- 
flies, like all other living forms, were slowly establishing 
themselves by those qualities and appearances which, 
under the law of natural selection, enabled them to 
survive the struggle for existence. It was then that 
what we call " mimicry " which is only one of a multi- 
tude of laws which govern the coloration of animals first 
arose, and butterflies which slightly resembled uneatable 
species, or had somewhat the appearance of inanimate 
objects, would escape perils common to their kind, and 
these would thus become the dominant breed of the 
species, and be continually under the same selective 
process, till the disguise was almost perfect. If, then, 
we now find the present scarce form of the species so 
largely mimicked, it seems absolutely certain by the sur- 
vival of the mimicry that it must have been once the 
dominant form of the species at least in India and 
has since, in the recurrent changes of nature, been 
almost replaced by the present form we so well know *. 
The food-plant of this butterfly (Gomplwcarpus, sp.), 
which grows and blooms upon the most dry and barren 
parts of the veld as well as where moisture is found, 
is universally distributed in patches or small groups 
and is one of the earliest plants to spring up and 
bloom when the cold nights of the dry season become 
less severe. Its flowers are visited by many insects. 
From them I have collected some half-dozen species 
of Cetoma and some showy representatives of the 
Heteromera, as well as Gallerucidre and Coccinellidee. 
Many Diptera and Hymenoptera visit the bloom, 

* For these views regarding the evolution of the species in India, I am 
largely indebted to Colonel Swinhoe, the well-known Indian lepidopterist. 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 67 

and among Hemiptera a species of Lygceus is particularly 
abundant. 

At about the end of November the shrill cry of the 
Cicadas was constantly heard from the willow and peach- 
trees in Pretoria, but principally from the first. The 
dominant species was Platypleura divisa, and I was 
surprised to find that it was captured and eaten by 
spiders. On once hearing a particularly loud chorus 
from a peach-tree, I visited the same to capture 
specimens, and found that spiders had industriously 
spread their webs between the branches, and remains of 
the Platypleurce were suspended in a more or less de- 
voured condition. I made use of these webs to procure 
specimens, for when first disturbed the flight of the 
Platypleurce is wild and headlong, but by getting 
between them and the meshes of the spiders I was 
soon enabled to obtain what was required. It is 
reasonable to believe that these insects pair during 
their mature stages or breeding-season. We passed 
daily a small willow tree where I constantly noticed 
a solitary couple of the species, and this was also 
known by the fact that we drove them out on walking 
by and frequently endeavoured to capture them. The 
male was always tuning, and was probably addressing 
his mate. At length, unfortunately, the singer allowed 
us to capture him ; the tree was henceforth mute, and 
I afterwards felt quite a remorse when my path took 
me by the then silent Cicadan home, for there was not 
the consolation of having captured either a new species 
or one new to my collection. 

I was surprised to find how many living creatures 
one had known in Britain were also to be found in the 
Transvaal. In birds the European Bee-eater (Merops 
apiaster) and Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) were 
not at all uncommon, whilst in insects one was continually 
meeting with some old friend. A List is appended to 
this volume of all these comrades one finds across the 
sea, or rather near the extremity of another continent ; 
but with fixed ideas of geographical distribution, and 
our natural conception of an Ethiopian region, it was 

. F2 



68 ^ NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

somewhat surprising to find that man alone was not the 
only migrant. My earliest English schoolboy days were 
recalled when I caught the Convolvulus Hawk-Moth 
(Protoparce convolvuli), bred the Death's-head Moth 
(Acherontia atropos), or gazed upon the numbers of the 
Painted Lady (Pyrameis cardui) ; whilst an earlier friend 
than all appeared with the summer rains. The Crim- 
soned-speckled Moth (Deiopeia pulchella) was a very 
old acquaintance. 1 had caught it in Surrey, met with 
it again in the Malay Peninsula, received it from 
Mogador, and now at the other end of Africa found it 
somewhat an abundant insect. The time of its appear- 
ance in the Transvaal is very protracted. I first cap- 
tured it at the end of September, and found it still 
active on leaving the country in the following July. 
Flying in the strong sunlight, I have often mistaken it 
for a large Lyccenid, as the pale azure-blue of the poste- 
rior wings is wonderfully reflected, and the red and 
black spots of the anterior wings are, during flight, 
scarcely, if at all, visible. Its flight is short and it is 
easily captured. 

It was very soon after my arrival that I first saw the 
Secretary-bird (Serpentarius secretarius), that well-known 
African snake-eater of which we have all read. It is 
generally believed, and I was assured as a fact, that a 
50 fine was inflicted for killing one of these birds ; but 
in the Transvaal, as elsewhere, I soon found that the 
" vox populi " must be taken " cum grano salis" I 
enquired of several well-informed men, including a 
newspaper editor, who stated that such was the fact ; 
but at last I induced a friend on whom I could rely to 
make proper enquiries at headquarters, and after consi- 
derable trouble he discovered that there was no fine 
whatever on the statutes, but that a healthy and deter- 
rent legend only existed *. Another legend appertaining 
to this bird and copied in popular books on ornithology 
is that its legs are so long and brittle that they will 

* For this and much other reliable inforniatiou I am indebted to my 
friend Meinheer J. H. E. Bal, of Pretoria, who has long been a resident in 
the country. 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 69 

snap if suddenly started into a quick run. My man, 
Donovan, who accompanied me to the Transvaal, and, 
imbibing the zoological furore., assiduously spent his 
Sundays in shooting birds, procured me a very fine 
specimen of the species. By a long shot he broke its 
wing, when it made off at a terrific pace across the veld, 
followed by a spider and pair of horses as hard as they 
could go. Eventually it was come up with, and on the 
Kafir boy endeavouring to secure it, the bird showed 
fight, beat him off, and again started running across the 
uneven ground. My man now outspanned one of the 
horses and on its back galloped after the creature, which 
had obtained a long start. For more than three miles 
did this chase continue over the veld interspersed with 
ant-hills, and eventually it required the contents of two 
more barrels (buck-shot) to stop and secure it. This fact 
effectually disposes of its reported incapacity for violent 
running, as the hunt was over a long stretch of country 
of the most uneven surface. The crop of this bird was 
full of the remains of orthopterous insects *. 

But the bird of the open treeless veld is the Vulture 
( Gyps tolbii), and in places like the outskirts of Pretoria, 
where dead oxen and horses in some seasons plentifully 
strew the plain, these birds act the part of a sanitary 
board. A specimen I obtained weighed in the flesh 
32 Ibs., and as it was a full-grown example and a large 
bird, I think this may be accepted as the maximum 
weight. On days when none are apparently to be seen, 
if one carefully looks upwards towards the clear sky and 
scans the expanse, the diminished form of one of these 
huge griffons is sure to be made out, as from its lofty 
vantage it surveys a large tract of country. Should a bird 
be seen to alight, it is not long before others arrive from 
all sides and hover about the spot. There can be little 
doubt that high in the air these sentinels are always on 

* Dr. Sclater informs me, however, that the le^s of specimens confined in 
the Gardens of the Zoological Society are very brittle and liable to accident. 
The range of this bird is somewhat restricted. Emin Pasha did not meet 
with it on the East-African steppes, though he believed it existed there 
(' Ernin Pasha in Central Africa,' p. 402). 



70 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

the look out, so that the whole level country is thus 
under constant supervision, and when a bird is seen to 
descend or to be making off, that act serves as notice of 
probable quarry for miles around, like the early signal 
of the beacon-fire flashed from hill to hill. The usual 
sailing motion of the hovering bird is at once changed 
for a direct route, and its flight then, as far as I ob- 
served, was always four or five strong flaps of the huge 
wings, succeeded by a short straight motionless forward 
movement caused by the impetus thus obtained, to be 
followed by another four or five flaps as soon as the 
former motive power was exhausted. Usually shy, 
when gorged with food their habits are quite modified 
and they are easily approached. I once came across 
more than a hundred settled about two dead oxen. 
On each carcass were ten or twelve vultures at 
work, whilst the others in listless and gorged apathy 
rested around. The naturalist who has skinned a full- 
grown and full-fed vulture will not easily forget the 
operation. Now that the vast herds of game which 
once roamed over the veld are practically exterminated, 
the vulture becomes more dependent for its provender 
on the deceased domestic oxen bred by man, and the 
body of an ox is much preferred to that of a horse. 
Their food around Pretoria may become scarcer, as a 
movement was on foot to form a commercial company 
for gathering up these carcasses to boil down for soap. 
About the town gardens a bird almost as common as 
the sparrow in England is the Cape Wagtail (Motacilla 
capensis), but which by^ its tameness and partiality for 
the habitations of man\reminded me of our robin, and, 
like that bird, is as little molested, save by boys, the 
natural enemies of all birds. Many entomologists have 
recorded the fact that they have never seen a butterfly 
attacked by a bird ; but I not only obtained an Arctiid 
moth (Binna madagafyariensis}., which I surprised one 
of these birds in the act of killing, but also saw another 
actually pursuing a butterfly belonging to the genus 

, which is generally exempt from these attacks. 
After an interval of some fifteen years Pretoria was 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 71 

visited early in the month of May by a prodigious swarm 
of locusts (Pachytylus migratoroides) *. Travellers from 
the coast had passed through these devastating insect 
hordes, which apparently were working their way up 
from the Cape Colony. On the morning of May llth 
our attention had been directed to myriads of locusts 
flying near the hills, and some few stragglers were 




LOCUST-SWARM IN PRETORIA. 

found in the town ; but shortly after noon the air was 
darkened, as swarms only to be computed by billions 
came with a rushing sound over our heads and across 

* The traveller Mohr met with similar swarms of probably the same locust 
on the banks of the Vaal River in 1869 (< To the Victoria Falls of the 
Zambesi,' p. 94). 



72 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

our path. The light was obscured as with clouds of 
dust, whilst to walk through the flitting insects re- 
minded one of the driving snow-flakes at home, as the 
pale hyaline wings and not the dark tegmina are ob- 
servable during flight*. Stragglers continually fell 
out of the ranks, and we heard them drop on the iron 
roof of our dwelling. The flight was directed at 
different angles of one common direction, and stragglers 
constantly kept up a small counter-stream to the main 
body. The ground was thickly covered, and at sunset 
most of the flight had probably settled for the night. 
The heaviest portion of the main body, which might 
be described as the centre of the army, crossed us in 
about half an hour, but the flight continued long 
after and before. Their extraordinary numbers could 
be appreciated by the non-observable effect of their 
immense losses. Myriads were trodden under foot, our 
Kafir workmen collected them for food f , the poultry 
of Pretoria gorged themselves on their bodies. Two 
Crowned Guinea-fowls (Numida coronata) which I kept 
in confinement, and were always supplied with food, 
devoured so many of the locusts that I feared that they 
must die of repletion J; a large " Gom Paauw " (Otis 
kori) that we shot shortly afterwards had its crop 
crammed with the bodies of these invaders, but the 
great cloud seemed to suffer no diminution. On the 
next morning the ground was thickly strewn with the 
locusts ; but they took wing as the sunlight became 

* Carl Lumholtz was also reminded of a snow-storm whilst standing 
among 1 a swarm of locusts in Queensland (' Among Cannibals,' p. 186). 

t Holub, after eating these insects, felt he " could recommend a few locusts 
to any gourmand who, surfeited with other delicacies, requires a dish of 
peculiar piquancy ; in flavour I should consider them not unlike a dried and 
strongly-salted Italian anchovy " (' Seven Years in South Africa,' vol. i. 

According to Livingstone, "locusts are often roasted and pounded into meal, 
when they will keep for months. Boiled they are disagreeable, but when 
roasted I much prefer them to shrimps, though I would avoid both if possible " 
('Popular Account of Missionary Travels and Eesearches in S. Africa,' 
new ed. p. 31). 

I Mohr's ostriches " ate locusts from morning till night, and four of them 
soon afterwards died of dyspepsia " (' To the Victoria Falls of the Zambesi,' 
p. 201). 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. To 

stronger, and by the afternoon we were moderately 
free. 

On May 25th we were again invaded, and again from 
the same direction. We had learned from travellers of 
the preceding day that another locust army was ap- 
proaching, and a " transport rider " assured me that his 
oxen had refused to go on against the dense moving 
mass. This time the living cloud broke upon Pretoria 
about 10 A.M., and had virtually passed from us by 
3 P.M. * This swarm was afterwards reported from 
Waterberg and Zoutpansberg, showing that its flight 
was in a northerly direction. In the early part of 
June, in crossing the Magaliesberg hills, I found them 
somewhat plentiful in a defile on the summit. This 
small colony were evidently stragglers from the higher 
portion of the flight and had thus ceased to form part 
of the main body, which was now some hundreds of 
miles in advance. News was brought down to Pieters- 
burg from the Spelonken that the locusts had been so 
numerous as to prevent the informant driving a cart and 
four horses against them f . On the journey to the Cape 
in July I met with a considerable number near the 
boundary of the Republic, a larger swarm the following 
day about 50 miles beyond Kimberley, and another 
swarm about 40 miles further south. All these were 
flying northward, and would probably pursue the same 
routes as their precursors. This was my last experience 
of Pachytylus migrator oides. The year 1891 might be 
styled by entomologists a " locust year," for Southern 
Africa was not the only region invaded, and almost 
simultaneous reports were received from Egypt and 
India J. 

As the colder and dry season commences the natura- 

* Of this swarm a correspondent of the ' Transvaal Mining Argus ' calcu- 
lated that he passed through a cloud of locusts 25 miles long, about a mile 
and a half broad, and something under half a mile thick, giving about 12 
cubic miles of locusts. Taking a low estimate he reckoned there would be 
about 2000 locusts to every cubic yard (an estimate much too low), and 
altogether he calculated that he must have passed over 130,842,144,000,000 
locusts. 

t ' Zoutpansberg Review.' 

j ' Zoologist,' vol. xv. p. 221. 



74 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

list can obtain many good specimens on the Pretoria 
market, for the Boers are then able to bring their game 
in for sale, which is impossible in the damp hot weather. 
The farmers are fond of shooting, but are equally glad 
to find a market for the game, which with forage, fire- 
wood, and other articles are sold by auction off the 
wagons before breakfast by the market auctioneer. 
Amongst birds, the Paauw (Otis kori) may often be 
bought, and I have known a heavy bird to fetch as 
much as 2 10s., for its flesh is very rich and highly 
flavoured, and I cannot agree with Mr. Ayres that the 
flesh " is too coarse and oily to be good eating " *. My ' 
man secured me a fine 20-lb. specimen, which he killed 
with No. 6 shot a few miles out from Pretoria. Its crop, 
as I have remarked before, was full of locusts, and it 
was certainly the fattest bird I ever skinned, my hands 
being saturated with grease by the time I had finished 
the operation. The bird does not seem at Pretoria to 
reach the great weight it does in other parts of South 
Africa. The proprietor of the hotel at which I boarded 
told me that the largest specimen he ever bought 
weighed 28 Ibs., and a friend who had been an energetic 
sportsman for many years had only once bagged a 
Paauw that reached 32 Ibs. On the other hand, I met 
a gentleman at Potchefstroom who said he had shot a 
specimen that weighed 41 Ibs., and this was the largest 
he had ever seen or heard of in that neighbourhood. This 
I believe is about the maximum weight of which we have 
any authentic record, and I am somewhat sceptical 
as to the existence of the reported 50-lb. or 60-lb. 
Paauws f. 

The smaller Bustards, Otis ccerulescens and Otis 
afroides, are not at all difficult to obtain on the market, 
and the Spur-winged Goose (Plectropterus gambensis) is 

* Layard's < Birds of South Africa,' Sharpe's edit. p. 633. 

t Mohr states that he has shot specimens weighing thirty-five pounds 
('To the Victoria Falls.' p. 33). Mr. Ayres, though he had often heard of 
40-lb. Bustards heing shot, never saw one of anything like the weight, though 
one of 40 Ibs. was reported as shot by Mr. Buxton (Layard's ' Birds of 
Africa,' Sharpe's edit. pp. 632-3). Burchell describes his typical specimen 
as measuring in extent of wing not less than seven feet (' Travels,' i. p. 393). 



PHASES OF NATURE AROUND PRETORIA. 75 

rarely absent when game is brought in. Bucks of 
various species, the "jumping hare " (Pedetes capensis), 
the Monitor ( Varanus niloticus), and skins of Leopards 
and the smaller cats I have also seen for sale. It is 
rare, however, to find a bird in good condition, as they 
are usually badly shot and with the plumage ruined. 
It is somewhat strange that the Boer farmers dp not 
show more energy in bringing game to the Pretorian 
market, for it is certainly remunerative. During my 
stay a resident went on a shooting-expedition to the 
wood-bush about 90 miles from Pretoria, and on his 
return sold the game to a butcher for 27. Amongst 
the spoil were two bucks, two small paauws, ducks, 
partridges, and blue bustards, which at this price 
averaged 5s. per head all round. They were then 
retailed, blue bustards at 6s. each, partridges and ducks 
6s. per brace, paauws from 30s. to 2. From this man I 
secured a very fine specimen of Otis ccendescens. All 
specimens, both living and dead, fetch fair prices in 
Pretoria, and a pair of healthy young Quaggas (Equus 
quag go] were brought in and sold during my stay for 55. 
We occasionally obtained good sport among the so- 
called Partridges (Francolins), when the grass had died 
down in the early part of winter. The commonest 
species met with in the neighbourhood of Pretoria was 
Francolinus levaillantii^ sometimes in good coveys, but 
never far away from water. These birds lie uncommonly 
close and can be easily passed. A Kafir boy once 
pointed out a grassy spot, not more than a yard or two 
square, where he assured us he had seen a bird settle 
down. We thoroughly, as we thought, threshed this 
spot, walking apparently over it again and again, and 
yet, subsequently, the boy with more perseverance and 
a desire to prove himself right, turned it up from under 
a tuft of tall dried grass that we had just missed 
treading down. Later in the afternoon of the same day, 
a single member of a covey which I had disturbed 
squatted in a small hole in the path about 80 yards in 
front of me, and depressing its back level with the 
earth, exhibited a good instance of the protection 



76 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

obtained by assimilative coloration. So perfect was the 
illusion, that partly owing to the diminishing light I 
failed to add it to my bag by a charge of shot. 

The longer I observed living nature in South Africa 
the deeper became my impression that the colours and 
habits of the animals and plants around me were, like 
the geological contour of the country, a story of a by- 
gone time. The colour of every feather, the appearance 
of every seed-capsule, is due to causes which in many 
cases are now almost inoperative. But it was then in 
the dire struggle for existence, subsequent to the last 
great geological change in the surface condition of the 
earth, that those varieties of plants and animals only 
survived which could in some way pass the severity of a 
competitive examination by natural selection. Hence we 
must not always expect to find a philosophical explanation 
of the bizarre colours of animals and plants by simply 
considering their present conditions of life. If it is 
difficult to trace the evolution of a civilized community 
of mankind, with its customs and superstitions, to its 
primordial elements, many of which belong to a pre- 
historic period, how gigantic is the task to attempt to go 
behind the very evolution of man himself! and yet it was 
at that time when the small birds and insignificant 
insects obtained the maximum of their colour-markings, 
not to add to the beauty of the scene, but to enable them 
to survive an eliminating process which took place in the 
great struggle for existence. Many of these gorgeous 
living forms are to my mind fossils, of a past epoch 
which we cannot read. 








THE MONITOR ( Varanus nilviicus). 



CHAPTER V. 



THROUGH WATERBERG. 

Scarcity of timber iu tbe Transvaal. Leave Pretoria for Waterberg. 
Waterless region of the Flats. The Warm Baths. lieautiful scenery. 
Euphorbias and their poisonous qualities. Fever districts. The 
Massacre at Makapan's Poort. Sanguinary retribution at Makapan's 
Cave. A fine orthopterous insect. The Prospector. Reptiles. 
Ravages of the "Australian Bug." Majuba day. Mimicking 
insects. 

EARLY in the month of February I made a journey 
through the Waterberg district, to procure a supply and 
estimate the quantity that could be obtained of the best 
tanning-material of the country, the leaf of the tree I 
have already referred to (Colpoon compression). As the 
industry of the Transvaal progresses, an investigation 
of its tanning-products will doubtless be undertaken, 
for it can scarcely be credited that the few vegetable 
materials now only known as available for a trade that 
must have a future adequately represent its wealth in 
this matter. A process of tanning in small quantity 
for household wants has long been understood and 



78 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

practised by the Boer farmers, who, I am informed, use 
the leaves of other trees than the C. comprest>um for 
the purpose ; and when the government really takes up 
the necessary question of forestry, a most important one 
for the country, the preservation and planting of these 
trees, upon which will depend the success of a Transvaal 
leather manufacturing trade, must be seriously dealt 
with*. 

At present the Transvaal may almost be described as 
timberless, so far as building-operations can be carried 
on. Even the wagon-builders have no local material, 
or at least none that can be obtained in any quantity, 
and it is absolutely cheaper to import wagons from the 
British Colonies, where there is an official Inspector 
of Forestry, than to manufacture them in the heart of 
the Transvaal. Vast quantities of deals and other 
European and American woods are brought up from 
Durban with all the incidental cost of rail and ox- 
wagon f ; and when at last the railway is allowed to 
give to the development of the country its natural and 
much-desired impetus, the sleepers for the lines will 
have to be imported. At present the great drawback 
to all local industries is that articles, despite duties, 
and in the face of monopolizing concessions, can be 
imported as cheap or cheaper than they can be manu- 
factured on the spot. The wealth of the Transvaal has 
hitherto only been sought beneath the ground ; it must 
now be cultivated on its surface. 

I started just after a period of heavy rains, and as the 
coach passed through the Wonderboom Poort, signs of 
the recent floods could be observed by the vegetable 

* This has been thoroughly done in Australia, and Mr. Maiden, in his 
' Useful Native Plants of Australia,' has described over thirty species of 
" Wattles " and about half as many Eucalypts which have been tested for 
tanning-material. In all eighty-seven Australian species have been under 
examination. 

Burchell found that the Hottentots used the bark of the Karro-thorn for 
tanning sheepskins, and amongst other plants used for the same purpose were 
a kind of Finis and Mesembryanthemum coriarium, B. (' Travels in Interior 
of Southern Africa,' vol. i. p. 243). 

t In October 1890 the following quotations were obtained : Deals. 3x9, 
Is. 5d. per foot ; flooring, f X6, 4c?. per foot. 



THROUGH WATERBERG. 79 

debris left stranded in the tops of trees growing by the 
banks of the river; many of the trees were at least 
fifteen feet high, and one could thus realize the dan- 
gerous and relentless force of these flooded streams. 
After leaving this mountain pass, short scrubby trees 
become plentiful, and the soil is loose and sandy. As 
the journey is advanced, the country is found to be 
much more wooded and is in pleasant and strong con- 
trast to the monotony of the bare veld which marks the 
higher lands. To drive along a narrow road through 
thick woods was, indeed, a novel experience, and we 
reached the banks of the Pienaars River about 4 P.M., 
and shortly afterwards commenced the longest and 
most severe stage of our journey. The "Waterberg 
Flats " occupy a waterless region of some twenty-five 
miles in width, where there are no stages, and the 
mules have at least a four hours' stretch ; but on this 
occasion, owing to the state of the road, in which the 
wet rutty ground had dried just sufficient to be bad for 
the feet of the mules, we were five hours in transit. 
During the last hour one could not help sympathizing 
with the poor jaded beasts, and the shouts of the driver 
and the crack of the whip were constant sounds. Pas- 
sengers and mules will probably soon be spared this 
unbroken stage, as an enterprising American was then 
sinking a well, already 108 feet deep, through the 
rocky ground at his own expense. When he reached 
water, and had completed the well, he proposed building 
a store and stables, and as the spot is about midway 
across the Flats, his enterprise should be repaid. It 
was 9 P.M. when we reached the hotel which bears the 
name of the Warm Baths. The warm water rises from 
a mass of peat and reeds in the neighbourhood, and is 
conveyed to the hotel by pipes. After the dust and 
fatigue of the road these baths are most refreshing, and 
now that the property is leased and managed by a 
small British company in Pretoria, the spot bids fair to 
be the retreat and sanitarium of the capital. The Boers 
visit this spot and use the waters ; but in their case a 
hole is made in the ground, into which the water 



80 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

flo\vs. In this rude and muddy bath, covered with a 
tent or other screen, the farmer will remain for hours. 

A real night's rest is quite an unknown quantity to 
the coach-passenger; this journey was, of course, no 
exception to the rule, and we were aroused at 2.30 A.M. 
to resume our route. By 7 A.M. we had reached Nyl- 
stroom, a forlorn spot, where the imposing appearance 
of a post-office and lancldrost's court, unsurrounded by 
any apparent business life, give it the appearance of a 
still-born township. But fever has been the retarding 
cause of Nylstroom's future, and its character for un- 
healthiness will long survive, though the natural beauty 
of the surrounding country, and its little-disturbed con- 
dition, should make it a district beloved of sportsmen. 
As the traveller leaves this spot it is difficult to believe 
that one is still in the Transvaal, after an experience 
only of the country between Pretoria and the Cape and 
Natal frontiers. Woods, park-like tracts, undulating 
country, from which views could be obtained of endless 
and varied landscape, tall, w r ooded, isolated hills, and 
ranges of mountains with forest slopes, alternately 
meet the eye. Scattered Euphorbias quite transformed 
the appearance of the flora, and broke, as it were, the 
sameness of the short forest growth. The irritant 
properties of the milky juice obtained from these plants 
is well known * ; but the bloom possesses the same 
attributes, and honey is unfit for use that has been made 
by bees which have visited the flowers. A resident friend 
once purchased some honey from Kafirs, and this, when 
used by himself and companions, caused an intense 
burning sensation in the throat ; they then made 
careful enquiries as to its origin, and traced it to a 
Euphorbian source. New birds were observed in the 
trees such as never appeared at Pretoria. A hornbill 
was common, but more abundant still was the pretty 
Lilac-breasted Roller (Coracias can data). At intervals 
on the tops of trees perched Buzzards, that seemed by 
their numbers to have the whole neighbourhood under 

* Used by some of the tribes of South Africa for poisoning water to 
obtain game (Parker Gillmore, ' Days and Nights by the Desert/ p. 61). 



THROUGH WATERBERG. 81 

observation, and yet when I traversed the country again 
about two months subsequently, scarcely one of these 
birds was to be seen. A large portion of the avifauna 
is migratory in a local sense, and the Buzzards follow 
their prey. 

We now approached localities which will always be 
remembered in Boer history and recall the days of the 
Boer and Kafir struggle for supremacy. Potgieter's 
Rust is associated with a name attached to a tragedy 
about to be related. The place had been an improving 
hamlet, and had enjoyed a healthy reputation till the 
year 1870, when fever in a most violent form broke out 
among its inhabitants. By April of that year eighty- 
one out of the ninety-three settlers had died or were 
prostrated, and in May the locality was deserted. It is 
now again inhabited, and may in time become a town- 
ship. A spot, however, which is still called Makapan's 
Poort, is the central point of one of those wild deeds 
which so often give a lurid glare to the struggle be- 
tween native races and white settlers. At Makapan's 
Poort, in the year 1854, a particularly diabolical murder 
was perpetrated by a clan of Kafirs under a chief named 
Makapan upon a party of hunting Boers. The hunting 
party consisted of thirteen men and ten women and 
children, and were under the head of a Field-cornet, 
Hermanus Potgieter. Potgieter had visited Makapan 
to trade for ivory, although the volksraad had passed 
laws prohibiting this manner of barter, with the view 
of preventing the danger of disputes and quarrels arising 
between the black and white people. Whatever the 
provocation may have been in the demeanour of the 
Boer, if provocation there was, as has been currently 
reported at the time and since, it remains that these 
unfortunate people were barbarously murdered, women 
and children sharing the same fate, and Potgieter 
himself flayed alive, his skin being afterwards pre- 
pared for a kaross. 

Blood once being shed and the die cast, the Kafirs 
commenced to pillage the surrounding neighbourhood. 
Needless to say the fiercest passions for retribution 



82 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

were now aroused among the Boers, and a sense of 
danger demanded a swift reprisal ; no homestead was 
safe if this Kafir attack was allowed to develop, every 
farmer instinctively apprehended the emergency, and 
soon upwards of four hundred armed burghers had 
arrived at the scene of the tragedy determined on 
vengeance deep and terrible. The Kafirs fled to a 
huge cavern some two thousand feet in length and 
four or five hundred in width, which was closely 
blockaded by the Boers. Now commenced that wild 
revenge which is common to man's nature under similar 
circumstances; it has been practised by the French 
in Algeria, and by ourselves during the Sepoy revolt in 
India. Frantic with thirst the imprisoned Kafirs 
sought at night to reach the water that flows near 
the cave, but were shot down in the attempt ; quarter 
was a word unknown, and after twenty-five days' 
blockade, the cavern was entered and its horrors seen. 
According to Commandant Pretorius who would have 
no interest in exaggerating the figures nine hundred 
Kafirs had been killed outside the cavern, and more 
than double that number had died of thirst within it *. 
Makapan himself is reported to have perished by 
poison introduced in water, but the true story of the 
wild vengeance will probably never be told. It was 
during the blockade that the present President Kriiger 
exhibited an act of that bravery which he has else- 
where displayed. A Boer commander was shot when 
standing near the mouth of the cavern, and Mr. Kriiger 
volunteered to bring away the body, which he did. 
This man was afterwards buried on his farm, and 
I have visited the grave ; it was silent and alone, as 
befitted the last rest of an old voortrekker. 

Some eight hours were at my disposal before the 
return coach could convey me back to Pretoria, and I 
seized the opportunity to visit the cavern, guided by 
one who knew the neighbourhood and had once been 

* The South-African historian, G. McCall Theal, who is cautious and not 
biassed against the Boer, adopts these figures (' History of South Africa. 
1854-72,' p. 30). 



THROUGH WATERBERG. 



S3 



an English soldier. The weather was clear and hot, 
we crossed large fields of maize grown by Kafirs, 
who are here the only agriculturists, and as we walked 




Clonia wahlbergi. 



through these high and nourishing plants one was 
reminded of the fields of young sugar-cane in the East. 
It was in these fields that I first captured the fine 
orthopterous insect, Clonia wahlbergi, and experienced 

G2 



84 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

the severity of its bite. I had previously sustained the 
pincer-like grip of the beetle Manticora tuberculata, 
which was much less painful than that of this Ortho- 
pteron, the mark of which on my finger was carried for 
several days. An hour's walk brought us to the first 
cave, which the Kafirs visited before proceeding to the 
second and larger one, where they sustained the 
blockade and in which most of them perished. Tt 
was very hot, and when we reached the abrupt rocky 
side of the hill up which we had to climb, for the 
cavern is situate some distance from the base *, we 
were glad to quench our thirst at the small stream of 
cold clear water that flows along the valley at its foot. 
It was this stream that the thirst-maddened Kafirs 
sought to reach at night, when, however, the Boer 
bullet was usually received. Inside the gloomy pre- 
cincts of the cavern skulls were strewn in profusion, but 
generally without the lower jaws, and many have been 
taken away by visitors : the dung of the sheep and 
goats possessed by the imprisoned Kafirs was still 
intact on the dry floor, and handles of axes, grinding- 
stones for corn, baskets, &c., bore their witness to the 
retributive slaughter of 1854. We could not penetrate 
into the recesses of the cavern, as we had not brought 
candles ; but it was an uncanny scene, and a large 
dog that accompanied us seemed very ill at ease 
and kept near the entrance. I was able to select six 
very fair crania f, both juvenile and adult, which I 
brought away, and we retraced our steps, glad to reach 
the " hotel " once more and drink a bottle of English 
ale, which, however, in this part is priced four shillings 
and sixpence J. 

All the way, both coming and going, we saw the 

* Mr. Alford describes these caves, of which there are a number in the 
neighbourhood, as " large water- worn cavities in the stratification of the 
quartzites, formed by the removal of portions of the softer beds " (' Geolo- 
gical Features of the Transvaal,' p. 4U). 

t These crania are now incorporated in the fine craniological collection 
belonging to the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons ; and are fully 
described by Professor Stewart in the Appendix to this book (see p. 157). 

J In the Spelonken I once paid 5s. 6d., which may be taken as the high- 
water price for our English beverage. 



THROUGH WATERBERG. 85 

commencement of the Mashonaland trek. Wagons, 
drawn principally by donkeys, well equipped, were 
bearing young and enterprising spirits to Rhodes' new 
country and England's new Protectorate. Prospectors 
were hastening to find and peg-out claims which con- 
tained the precious reef, and though much fever and 
more hardship will be encountered in the early days, it 
will probably be the South- African land for the future 
colonist and will remain under the old flag. It is 
bound to absorb some of the capital of investors which 
might have otherwise reached the Transvaal, and 
though Boer and Hollander may sometimes think the 
Republic can do without the English, it will still miss 
the influx of English money. 

When a man has once gone prospecting he finds a 
charm in the life which he seldom deserts. Of course 
I am speaking of those free spirits who are no use in 
business, have a moral law unto themselves, and love 
the solitude of nature, diversified by an occasional 
carouse in a large town. Such a one we carried in our 
coach on the up-journey. He was bound for Mashona- 
land, and had purchased the wagon and oxen to carry 
the party, his friends having contributed the other 
necessaries. The wagon, however, had gone on without 
him, as he informed us he had indulged in such a 
" paralatic drunk " that his friends had become tired of 
waiting, and he was now endeavouring to overtake his 
party. Another member of the staff had still to follow. 
Four times had this susceptible man driven to the 
Poort where the wagon waited to start, and each time 
accompanied by a " lady " friend to see him off, but on 
each occasion his will failed and he returned to town with 
his fair companion. These men when they do get out 
and settle down mil be sober slaves, but they are like 
sailors on shore when a town is reached. My com- 
panion was a lump of good-nature, of strong build and 
constitution, and in all my experience at home and 
abroad I never saw a man drink so much and show the 
effects so little. Consequently what the nature of the 
banquet was which prevented his joining the wagon, 
can be more easily imagined than described. 



86 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

The rain again commenced on our return, and we 
found Pretoria once more a scene of mud, with the usual 
results of detained mails and an almost impossibility 
of heavy transport. The arrival of the weekly mail is 
to the European exile an event of the first importance. 
Seven days' intellectual stagnation, in which the only 
recorded events are found in the dismal swamp of Boer 
politics, Church squabbles, and mining reports, render 
the new home journals most attractive, though the con- 
trast apart from purely literary studies is the record 
of the same motives being applied to a larger and more 
complex field. The same elements that compose the 
social and political fabric of Boerland are found at the 
root of our own national institutions ; but in Europe 
the stage is larger, the principal parts are acted with 
more dignity, and the scenery and decorations more im- 
pressive. The subject matter is the same, but the oratory 
has been more developed at home ; the " Oom Paul " 
of the Boer and the " People's William " amongst our- 
selves represent only a difference in degree and not of 
type. So it is with the civilization of Pretoria, which 
has reached a gaol and permanent gallows, but not yet 
acquired a workhouse ; it has recognized crime, as ours 
has, but still lacks the accompanying abject poverty of 
our own more developed towns and cities. Thus our 
home papers recorded the acting of a great national 
tragedy or superb social comedy, whilst the Transvaal 
existence has only yet advanced in politics to an ordi- 
nary drama, and in social distinctions to a farce. Midas 
may arise and does appear in the Boer republic, but he 
has not the potentiality for display which the plutocrat 
possesses in Europe, and appears ridiculous where our 
own creations are sometimes only offensive ; it is the 
difference between the processionary splendours of a 
travelling circus and the more gorgeous vulgarity of a 
Lord Mayor's Show. Thus a long and late night with 
the London papers was always a weekly treat compared 
with the uninteresting records of Transvaal communities ; 
but how different the impression became when leaving 
the townships one once more visited the solitudes of 



THROUGH WATER-BERG. 87 

South-African nature, and then the petty aims and 
sordid cares of our boasted development appear like an 
agony or a nightmare. The young Briton without 
family ties at home who has once roamed over these 
wild plains, and lived the free life, will visit, but pro- 
bably never die, in the old country. The anomalies of 
our so-called civilization are seldom really experienced 
or so clearly seen as from the vantage-ground of Nature's 
solitudes, and we there learn a lesson which we never 
forget, and acquire habits which last for a lifetime. 

Reptiles are not abundant in the neighbourhood of 
Pretoria. . Lizards (Mabuia trivittata), w r hich live in 
holes on the banks and hillocks of the veld, may be 
often seen in fine weather curled up at the entrance to 
their abodes apparently enjoying the air ; they then ar- 
range their bodies in a circular manner, their legs falling 
flat by their sides, and thus have all the appearance of 
snakes. They were difficult to capture without shooting, 
and I frequently dug them out, when they were always 
found living in the company of Toads. A Monitor 
( Varanus niloticus) was not uncommon about the banks 
of the spruits which here and there intersect the veld ; in 
the stomach of one I found the remains of two freshly- 
devoured rats and a frog. Among the different car- 
casses brought to the morning market by Boers for sale 
maybe frequently found the body of one of these animals. 
One Lizard (Agama hispida) is not at all uncommon, and 
I have secured three or four specimens from under one 
stone. Snakes are certainly few in number, and no 
Irishman need fear meeting too many specimens of his 
pet abhorrence near Pretoria. The Python is scarce ; I 
heard reports of solitary examples having been seen in 
widely separated spots, but was unable to obtain a 
specimen. One of the most mythical animals is the 
Crocodile, which is often reported as inhabiting streams 
which certainly do not possess a single individual. This 
was particularly the case in the Spelonken, where I was 
prevented from bathing in the deepest and best pools 
of the river by reports of these Saurians, of whom none 
of my informants had ever seen a specimen at the spot. 



88 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

As the untutored mind is apt to people the air with 
ghosts and goblins, so the Kafir loves to imagine the 
waters of the dark stream as inhabited by river gods 
and great reptiles. Even sailors find it difficult to 
believe that the vast silent ocean is not peopled by 
huge sea-serpents and other monsters; but, alas! all 
things, and even fancies, die a natural death, and the 
sea-serpent has now nearly followed the mermaid. 
Zoological science has made it impossible to 

" Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea ; 
Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn." 

The dangers of these rivers are not from their in- 
habitants, but from their swollen and sudden rush 
during the heavy rains. We once narrowly escaped in 
driving through one of these augmented streams. The 
water rose over the floor of the spider, which floated, 
and for a few moments the horses lost their foothold ; 
but I shouted to the Kafir boy to use the whip, and we 
got through. The Boer farmer I visited would scarcely 
believe we had driven through the stream (which was 
certainly due to ignorance and not courage on my part), 
and on our return he sent two of his sons to the river to 
help in an emergency, or to witness a foolhardy Britisher 
have at least a dangerous ducking. Of course under such 
a challenge the thing had to be again attempted, and 
we succeeded in accomplishing our purpose, though with 
an unexpressed resolution to try no such experiments 
again. The Kafir boy showed no fear, nor did he on 
another occasion^ when the horses breaking from con- 
trol took fright in going down a rocky hill and bolted, 
while for several moments I was asking myself whether 
it was to be broken limbs or broken neck ! 

Although, as before remarked, the high veld is an 
almost treeless region, and Pretoria by planting has 
been made an exception to the somewhat general rule, 
its arboriculture is in danger by the arrival of the 
Coccid, or so-called " Australian Bug" (leery a purchasi), 
which has ruined many trees and shrubs. Already a 
formidable pest in Australia, New Zealand, and North 



THROUGH WATEREERG. 89 

America, it was first observed in the Botanic Gardens 
at Cape Town in 1873, and has since spread over nearly 
all South Africa, this scale-insect being now too 
frequently seen in the Transvaal. It specially attacks 
the orange-tree, which in the high Transvaal is the 
only really eatable fruit to be obtained, and hence its 
arrival and depredations are the more to be regretted. 
This Coccid* in time may prove as serious a trouble 
to the arboriculturist as the prevalent lung-disease 
already is to the cattle-farmer and the horse-keeper. 
Man's development of this country is a long struggle 
with the different forces and agents of Nature ; if his 
cattle survive the sickness in the Transvaal they will 
not conquer the little Tsetse-fly (Glossina morsitans) of 
the interior ; heavy rains and floods destroy his crops, 
and the scale-insect attacks his trees ; in the rich low- 
lands, where the most luxuriant crops can be produced, 
malarial fever dwells ; in the townships of the healthy 
highlands defective drainage is attended by malignant 
typhoid epidemic. Man's greatest happiness is living 
in conformity with Nature's laws, his greatest intel- 
lectual achievement has been in conquering and utilizing 
her forces. Dynamite is a progressive power in the 
Transvaal, and is an invincible force in hewing the 
railway-track through the quartzite rocks, constructing 
roads across adamantine defiles, or blasting the gold- 
bearing reefs. The boom of its explosion is a sound 
often heard, always denoting industrial enterprise ; and 
the word dynamite had a strange significance in my 
ears in this land as I observed its destructive force 
utilized for constructive purposes, and remembered its 
felonious notoriety in London a few years previously. 



* To those who would consult the literature relating to this insect, its 

may ba 
Ento- 



to Agriculture in New Zealand. The Scale Insects (Coccididte),' by W. M. 
Marshall, 1887 ; Report by Mr. Roland Trimr-n Government Notice (Blue 
Book) No. 113, 1877 ; au'd lastly, the excellent resum6 on the subject by 
Miss Eleanor A. Ormerod in her ' Inj urious Farm and Fruit Insects of 
South Africa.' 



90 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

February 27th, or Majuba day, is rightly remembered 
by Boers as a general holiday. Englishmen can accept 
a defeat, but need not necessarily celebrate its anniver- 
sary, and with my nephew and man, who had accom- 
panied me from England, I started on the previous even- 
ing for the small quantity of " wood-bush " that may be 
found in the Pretoria district on the Waterberg Road. 
An old colonist, who had reached Natal as a child, and 
wandered about South Africa ever since, often deserted 
but never quite forsaken by fortune, who seemed to 
have never failed and never prospered, and who, with- 
out any great financial reputation, was content in dis- 
position and seemed independent in character, invited 
us to spend the night at a small farm he rented in the 
neighbourhood. We reached the abode late, for the 
way was long, the roads heavy, and the night dark, and 
here in this small domicile on the vast veld, dwelling 
in all the plainness of the most primitive farm at home, 
was a colonist family who only just preserved in the 
parents' early life the slightest touch with home. And 
yet it is with these good people that the distrust of the 
Boer is most strongly felt. The wealthy colonial or 
British merchant thrives with the Boer and respects 
his customer, but with men of small means and plain 
living the difference is most pronounced. The soldier 
accepts and forgets his defeat, but these humble and 
industrious Scotch and English, who were scattered 
over the country with farm or store at the time of the 
war, and went through much danger, and, what was 
worse, had to put up with much rudeness, have, doubt- 
less, forgiven but certainly not forgotten. Our sleeping 
accommodation was at least primitive : a straw pail- 
lasse stretched on the earthern floor of an empty cowshed, 
which, nicely ventilated by holes in the walls and roof, 
and agreeably perfumed by strings of onions suspended 
from the rafters, afforded us, in the absence of rain, 
excellent shelter. I was informed here of a sudden 
cessation to a bird pest. A small Finch had swarmed 
on the farm to the great destruction of certain crops, 
and all attempts to destroy them or thin their numbers 



THROUGH WATERBERG. 91 

had failed. These birds roosted at night on the reeds 
growing in a small river-bed or vley, and one night, 
shortly before my arrival, and after particularly heavy 
rain, the waters suddenly rose and covered the reeds to 
the almost total destruction of the birds, for my host 
said he had seen scarcely any since. We frequently 
see swarms of insects swept away by floods, but I had 
not hitherto heard of a wholesale destruction of birds 
by the same means. 

The wood-bush we visited was only a few miles in 
extent and thin in appearance, and yet contained 
almost another zoological world to the bare veld which 
adjoined it. Birds of many species not seen before 
were now met with, and many new skins secured for 
the collection. In insects the fine day-flying Moth 
(Xanthospilopteryx superba) flew amidst the shade of 
the acacias, and in Butterflies Herpcenia eriphia and 
Teracolus en's and T, evenina were captured by myself for 
the first time. The fine Ant-lion (Palpares coffer) was 
abundant round the outskirts of the trees, and large 
and gaudily-marked Spiders (Nephila transvaalica)* 
occupied in family groups or industrial communities 
the immense webs that stretched from tree to tree. In 
the ardour and pleasure of collecting we had aimlessly 
wandered among the trees, with the inevitable result 
that about noon we found we had not only lost our- 
selves, but all held different ideas as to the direction we 
should pursue. It is at such times that the mind grasps 
the full benefit of both savagedom and civilization, 
for we possessed neither the wood-lore nor path-finding 
capacity of the first, nor did we carry the pocket com- 
pass of the latter. Of course we went miles out of our 
way, and after hard walking for hours under a broiling 
sun we at last reached our spider again, and arrived 
late in Pretoria on the evening of Majuba day. 

Since January our Coleopterous visitants had in- 
cluded the fine and showy Buprestid Sternocera orissa. 
The first time I saw this grand beetle for in the 
Transvaal the Beetles, as a rule, are neither large nor 

* A new species, described in the Appendix by Mr. Pocock (Tab. V. fig. 4). 



92 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

showy it was resting in some numbers on the still 
leafless branches of a solitary acacia on the bare veld. 
Being far beyond our reach we threw large pieces of 
quartzite against the branches, and the concussion, as 
a rule, brought the insects to the ground, when they 
were secured before they could take wing. This species 
was always found on the branches of an acacia. Beetles 
are, however, difficult to obtain ; they are plentiful for 
a short time at the commencement of the rains, then 
become scarcer as the summer season advances, and are 
almost totally absent during the long dry season. 
Although the hedges were a mass of roses constantly in 
bloom during the summer, I was surprised to see how 
little they were visited by floral beetles. Certainly 
myriads of the Cetoniid Pachnoda flaviventris could 
generally be seen, and also the large Cantharid Mylabris 
ophthalmica, but the majority of all these flower-visiting 
Coleoptera confined themselves to the small and obscure 
bloom found on the veld. A new tree would burst into 
bloom, its flowers lasting but a short time, during which 
frequently a species of the Cetoniidee not hitherto seen 
would visit in quantity this fugitive blossom and again 
quickly disappear with it. 

From long observation in the field and of the contents 
in my cabinets at home, I had become convinced of the 
phenomena and the truth of the theory of mimicry* in 
the insect world, by which under the law of natural selec- 
tion edible species showing any resemblance to inedible 
ones, have gradually been preserved by the protection 
thus afforded, and the same selective process going on 
among their progeny for long periods of time has re- 
sulted in those wonderful resemblances which we now 
find among distinct orders of insects. So strongly was 
this always in my mind that I frequently was stung by 
real Hymenoptera, when I expected too much and 
thought I might be handling an imitator. But the 
tables were quite turned when I first captured a female 
of the longicorn Amphidesmus analis, which on a leaf 
has a surprising resemblance to a female of the genus 

* Long since enunciated and proved by my friend Mr. H. W. Bates. 



THROUGH WATERBERG. 



93 



Lycus belonging to a totally different Coleopterous 
family, and I was completely deceived till I held the 
insect in my hand. The objections urged against the 
theory of mimicry are generally based on a total mis- 
understanding of the theory itself. One frequently 
listens to arguments against a hypothetical assumption 
that an insect of its own volition, for protective pur- 
poses, copies the garb and appearance of an inedible 
species. Such a wild proposition would require no 
objection, for it could obtain no support. It is only 
when one has realized the struggle for existence in all 
animal life including man himself, has recognized 
the unbending, inexorable, and universal application of 
natural laws, appreciated that benevolence is an ac- 
quired product of the human heart and not of natural 
life, and observed that all life exists in an iron-bound 
environment, where strength reigns supreme and the 
strong taketh by force it is only then one under- 
stands what Herbert Spencer has so well called the 
" survival of the fittest," and what Darwin had enabled 
him thus to see by his enunciation of " Natural Selec- 
tion." With these facts before us we can comprehend 
how this " breed " of the persecuted beetle, ever tending 
by the attacks of its enemies a form of natural selec- 
tion to perpetuate its race by its more favoured repre- 
sentatives who were mistaken for inedible species, in 
the course of time reached in scanty numbers, it may 
be its zenith in simulative appearance and escaped 
extinction. These mimicking species are the shadow of 
a past, when there was a great need and a great 
danger. 



1)4 




NATIVE HUT, SPELONKEN. 



CHAPTER VI. 

ZOUTPANSBERG AND THE MAGWAMBAS. 

Start for the Spelonken in Zoutpansberg. Horse-sickness. Pietersburg. 
A fine Convolvulus. A castellated residence in the Wilds. Night 
in a wagon. Kafir traders. Kafirs on the tramp. Polygamy. The 
Magwambas, their customs acd institutions. An ox feast and dance. 
The Makatese. The Mavendas and their iron- work. Birds' food 
largely orthopterous. Good entomological spots. Zoutspansberg with 
its natural riches still undeveloped. 

I HAD for some time intended to undertake a journey 
through the Zoutpansberg district, and was engaged in 
making enquiries as to the best mode of conveyance 
to be engaged at the termination of the coach service at 
Pietersburg, when I was introduced to Mr. G. D. Gill, 
a Spelonken trader, who kindly invited me to share his 
wagon on his return journey, and to accept his hospi- 
tality during my stay in his neighbourhood. We started 
for Pietersburg on a cold April morning, and although the 
coach was timed to leave at 5 A.M., it was not before 



ZOUTPANSBERG AND THE MAGWAMBAS. 95 

another hour had elapsed that our black driver appeared 
upon the scene, when to the repeated and somewhat 
energetic remonstrances of the coach proprietor he 
merely returned the soft answer : " No, Baas, it cannot 
be six o'clock, I am sure." 

The horse-sickness was now prevalent ; a few days 
previously, when travelling to Johannesburg, we had to 
unharness a horse and leave it on the veld ; on this 
occasion we soon had to dispose of one of our mules in the 
same manner. The number of animals lost by the coach 
proprietors owing to this epidemic was something enor- 
mous. Within the few weeks previous to my journey, 
the small regiment of State artillery had lost twenty-five 
" salted " horses, and the detachment of ten men which 
escorted the President to Natal were deprived of four 
animals between Pretoria and the Transvaal border. At 
present there is little or no cure known for this disease, 
which is a serious matter for the welfare of the Republic. 

The journey through Waterberg has already been 
described in the previous chapter, and soon after leaving 
Eyting's " hotel " the country once more resumes its 
treeless and uninteresting appearance. We reached 
Pietersburg about 10 P.M., on the second day after 
leaving Pretoria, calling at Smitsdorp and Mara- 
bastad on our way. Pietersburg is a township now in 
course of development; it is planned out with sites 
reserved for Market and Church Squares, as in Pretoria 
and the other Transvaal towns. Already three churches 
were either quite or nearly completed ; it also possesses a 
Landdrost,has an exceedingly healthy and open situation, 
is the market town of Zoutpansberg, and as Mashona- 
land prospers, Pietersburg must grow, for it is the last 
Mart on one of the principal roads to Rhodes' eldorado. 
Its principal inhabitants are Germans, its stores trust 
to a Boer trade ; and though the first prosperity of 
Pietersburg had received a check at the time of my 
visit, the township has a future. Erven, or plots, that 
could have been purchased a few years since for 14, 
are now worth from 200 to 300. We stayed a day 
here waiting for our wagon, and time passed very 



96 ^ NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

slowly ; there is nothing to be seen or done in Pieters- 
burg but business, and at the time of my visit very little 
of that was acknowledged. The scenery around is bare 
plain and mountain, and health may here be restored at 
the cost of much ennui. It was difficult to realize that 
this was once a great game country, and living Boers 
can still remember the time when not only bucks and 
antelopes abounded on the now silent and lifeless veld, 
but even giraffes, lions, and elephants were to be found. 
Animal life was now almost alone represented by large 
numbers of the White-bellied Crow (Corvus scapulatus), 
which were more numerous here than in any other part 
of the Transvaal I visited, and the scanty flora was 
made memorable by a cultivated Convolvulus with 
blooms twice the size of the ordinary Convolvulus major ', 
which was also most abundant in gardens. I saw this 
fine flower again in the Spelonken, and obtained seed 
from it, but I have as yet been unable to effect its 
germination in England. 

After a day passed in Pietersburg, we started in a 
small wagon drawn by eight oxen for the Spelonken 
area of the Zoutpansberg district. The first day's trek 
was over bare veld, and towards evening we passed one 
of the most incongruous sights I saw in South Africa. 
Here in the desert plain suddenly appeared an effigy of 
an old feudal castle, reminding one more of a stage 
effect than of an antiquated building. This extra- 
ordinary structure has been built by a retired native 
commissioner, Capt. Dahl, and here he proposes to 
dwell and, I believe, end his days. I never fully realized 
before the true horrors of false taste; here where a 
bungalow with flowered trellis and garden rich in native 
flora would have harmonized with the natural features 
of the scene, we found a second-rate representation of 
what was most hateful in architecture and inconsistent 
with its surroundings. We rested at sunset near the 
base of a range of hills and then trekked on till about 
11 P.M., when we again outspanned the oxen and passed 
the night on the outskirts of a field of Kafir maize. 
The first night passed in a wagon has all the charm of 



ZOUTPANSBERG AND THE MAGWAMBAS. 



97 



novelty ; as one gazed through the opening behind at the 
clear starry sky, and realized the quiet of solitude, it 
seemed as though life was at last free, and social exist- 
ence deprived of its fetters. With the second day's trek 




CASTELLATED KESIDENCE IN ZOUTPANSBERG. 

the scenery altogether changed, the country was more or 
less thickly wooded, especially after fording the Dwaas 
River, which we reached about noon. A few hours 
from this spot we crossed a plain studded with granitic 
hillocks, which rose like rocks and islands from a shallow 
sea ; viewed from above, the whole scene reminded one 
of some portions of the coast of Brittany at low water, 
and it was difficult to overcome the impression that we 
were gazing on an old ocean-bed. Most of these 
elevated masses of granite were quite bare, with their 
surfaces highly heated by the rays of the sun. 

The only Europeans we met on our road up the 
Spelonken were the traders, who keep Kafir stores. 
They all seem to succeed, and some are moderately in- 
dependent after years of patience, industry, and solitude, 
for their life is a lonely one, especially when they are, 



98 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

as in many cases, unmarried. The living is bare and but 
little diversified, home comforts are in some instances of 
the fewest number, whilst in the small flower-garden 
near the house may frequently be seen the tomb of some 
loved one, who has lived and died with them in these 
African solitudes, and whose remains now really conse- 
crate the ground. Then, again, there is much leisure 
time, for the Kafirs come to purchase in a sporadic 
manner, and hours pass without the visit of a customer ; 
consequently these hermit merchants are glad to have a 
chat with any passer by, and I found them very hos- 
pitable to me on my journey. An old Matabele trader 
named Cooksley, whom Mohr mentions in his Travels, 
has now settled here and has the best establishment 
on the road. The beauty of the spot is its flower-garden 
and orchard, both of which are due to the horticultural 
taste and industry of Mrs. Cooksley, who kindly supplied 
me with a stock of fine oranges on both upward and 
return journey ; it is such cultivated spots and well-kept 
homes that are required to be distributed among the 
districts inhabited by the Boer farmers, for nothing but a 
healthy emulation can arouse that lethargic stock. These 
traders altogether depend upon their native customers, 
and in return are able to afford them considerable pro- 
tection, particularly if they happen to be in the hands of 
unscrupulous and oppressive native commissioners. I 
heard many reports of savage floggings and impositions 
when I was in Zoutpansberg ; and the government 
should remember that officials do not become valuable 
only as they collect native taxes, for it is possible at the 
same time to drive Kafirs from their locations, and thus 
not only destroy a source of revenue, but also depress a 
very valuable branch of trade in the country *. 

All along the road we passed small bodies of Kafirs 
tramping home after working at Kimberley, Johannes- 
burg, or Pretoria, where they usually remain for a 

* The government quite recently instituted an enquiry into these charges, 
which could not be substantiated. It was admitted, "however, that the 
Commissioner had flogged a native servant girl with a riding-whip for 
u frequent acts of immorality," but her subsequent death was decided to be 
due to other causes. 



ZOUTPANSBERG AND THE MAGWAMBAS. 99 

period not longer than three to five months. By that 
time they have saved a few pounds, purchased blankets, 
and other commodities, and commence their long walk 
to their kraals or location, in the warmer and more 
beautiful Zoutpansberg district, while some even cross 
the Limpopo River. The distance they travel is fre- 
quently over six hundred miles, and three or four 
hundred miles is a common journey. When on one of 
these long tramps they will often average eighteen 
miles daily, but a frequent rest for a few days at other 
kraals they may pass reduces the average of their daily 
pedestrian record. To see them toiling along with 
their heavy loads on head and back, frequently foot-sore 
and weary, but encouraged and sustained with the 
prospect of home once more, showed that these men had 
reached the elements of civilization. The labour ques- 
tion to them is not a matter of life-long servitude, and 
the few months spent working in the towns or delving 
in the mines is exchanged for an equal or far longer 
period of rustication among their own people. Some 
die on the road, especially in wet and cold weather, and 
we saw several who seemed to be thoroughly leg-weary 
and worn out. The money they have earned enables 
them to pay their yearly tax, but more particularly to 
find the purchase or " custom " money for another wife. 
Polygamy among these Kafirs is not necessarily a sensual 
institution. To women is deputed the whole manual 
work, both household and agricultural, and a wife will 
try and induce her husband to earn the means by which 
he can obtain another wife and thus lighten her own 
domestic duties. As is well known, oxen or money 
must be given to the father-in-law before his daughter 
can be obtained ; but the heavy outlay thus incurred is 
an investment, and will be well repaid if the husband 
becomes the father of female children and so in turn be- 
comes capitalist himself. In a savage or semi-savage 
community, women derive protection from such a custom. 
Female infanticide is unknown, the woman secures a 
safe and valued position in the tribe, and marriage thus 
having a financial value, any rampant immorality is 
discouraged and becomes an offence to the community. 

H2 



100 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Of course, some amount of immorality exists, as in 
the most puritanical districts at home, but at least a 
stand is made for the sanctity of marriage among these 
Kafirs by the prohibition of unmarried girls bearing 
children. It is very questionable whether these men lead 
more sensual lives with their few wives than they would 
do if they practised monogamy, and there are many 
occasions when the woman is avoided altogether, 
especially for some time after child-birth. At the stage 
of culture to which the Kafir has at present arrived, 
polygamy is a useful institution ; it is a protection to 
the women, and an incentive to the industry and enter- 
prise of the men. We are too apt to judge other social 
arrangements, especially when belonging to what we 
are pleased to call inferior races, by our own standard of 
civilization, which is often simply the subordination of 
the greatest good to the fewest number. Certainly, 
among these Magwamba Kafirs, woman only holds the 
place of a valued chattel (the women always kneel when 
handing anything to a man) ; but even then her lot is 
not worse, but probably better, than that of the well- 
abused drudge and slave of our own brickfields. 

The Magwambas, or "knob-noses," so-called from 
having their noses originally ornamented with notches 
or scars, were the tribe or clan of the Bantu race with 
which I was principally thrown in contact. They 
entered Zoutpansberg about twenty years previously 
from the other side of the Limpopo, under the control or 
chieftainship of a Portuguese named Joan Albasini, and 
they still style themselves " path openers." They are 
mostly refugees from Umzila's country, since joined by 
other refugees from the surrounding districts, and are 
now the most orderly and law-abiding inhabitants of the 
Spelonken. At the death of Albasini they looked to 
the Transvaal Government as their head, and afterwards 
elected the government native commissioner as their 
chief, a proceeding they probably now regard in the 
same light as the early Jews did their insistance on 
having a king. 

At the time of my visit to the Spelonken these 



ZOUTPANSBERG AND THE MAGWAMBAS. 



101 



Magwamba Kafirs numbered, I was told, about twenty 
thousand. They do not live together in large numbers, 
but have small scattered kraals consisting of a few 
huts. A favourite dress of the men is a tiger-cat skin 
in front and often another one behind, and the women 
wear a short petticoat. 




MAGWAMBA WOMAN CRUSHING MEAL. 

There was a small kraal a little behind the store at 
which I stayed, from which lamentation had ascended 
for the last three weeks and still continued to resound 
across the wooded veld. The head man of this village, 
who started to work at Kimberley, had died on the 



102 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

road, and now funeral dances and loud songs of woe 
were still of frequent occurrence. An Induna who 
accompanied me to see these rites exhibited what is 
called the " scepticism of the better classes," and quietly 
remarked with a smile, as he handed me some Kafir beer, 
" it will not bring him back." . All these men love 
strong liquor, and those who can obtain it show little 
moderation whilst the supply remains unfinished. Two 
Indunas visited the store daily, and patiently waited 
about during my visit, knowing that I had some whiskey, 
and by friendly smiles solicited the favour of being asked 
to take a drink. To look at these two men, there could 
be little doubt as to how they acquired their position. 
Good health, a stalwart and imposing appearance, the 
signs of mental capacity far beyond their fellows, a general 
air of good-natured cunning, and an absence of what 
might be called "morbid conscientiousness," made up 
the qualities that not only created success in a kraal, 
but with education would have made good men of 
business, who could have promoted Companies and 
held their own on a stock exchange. These are the 
attributes which for ever make impossible dreams as to 
the perfect " equality of man." 

With these two Indunas we arranged the prelimi- 
naries for a great dance on the basis of my host pro- 
viding an ox to be slaughtered and eaten on the 
occasion. 

On the morning of the dance troops of Magwambas, 
ornamented with their most showy if scanty wearing- 
apparel and singing their songs or rather dirges, 
gathered in from all sides. Several Indunas were 
arrayed in war-like attire, and the whole scene reminded 
one of a public holiday at Hampstead or Kiddlesdown 
at home, but without both the drunkenness and vul- 
garity. The only vulgar-looking Kafir was an individual 
in European costume, who had just returned from 
working at the diamond-fields. He was dressed in a 
suit of cords, his waistcoat was ornamented with three 
distinct brass watch-guards, he also possessed boots and 
necktie and wore a round hat ; but, compared with his 



[To face p. 102. 




ARTS AND INDUSTRIES IN THE SPELONKEN. 

1 & 2. Magwamba necklaces. 4. Mavenda pick or hoe. 

3. Magwamba snuff-box. 6. Magwamba ladle. 

6, 7, 8, 9. Magwamba head-rests. 



ZOUTPANSBERG AND THE MAGWAMSAS. 



103 



less clothed but more artistically attired brethren, he 
looked like an East-end rough at home. Oh! nine- 
teenth-century civilization, you have polluted the fairest 
spots with smoke and hideous erections, from which 
the factory bell tolls like a Newgate summons to the 




MAGWAMBA WAB-AXES. 

condemned labourers ; now in the Spelonken you send 
us such a vulgarized, if civilized, wretch as this ! He 
dances not, he smiles not, he only looks on, but in a 
short time he will dispense with these hideous robes 
and once more dance and eat his mealies with his 
happy friends. 

The dances might be described as of a " program " 
nature, and represented phases and events of Kafir life, 
such as " bearding a lion in his den," &c. ; they com- 
menced at about 11 A.M. and continued almost uninter- 
ruptedly till about 4 P.M. The men and boys formed 
a wide outer circle, inside which in two close phalanxes 
were the married women and unmarried girls. A 
Kafir really dances he acts the dance, he enjoys it, he 
lives his part in it ; to him a dance is a lamentation 
or a rejoicing, the glory of a fight or the story retold 



104 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

of a homely reminiscence : no wonder the labourer 
gladly tramps back from the large towns, where his 
existence is a compound of work and restriction, to 
the family life of the kraal. There freedom is com- 
bined with gaiety and excitement, wants are few, and 
their food simple and to hand. But the cry frequently 
heard from Europeans is that the government " should 
make the niggers work," and this by imposing heavy 
taxation. The advocates of this doctrine are often 
speculators, who believe that civilization consists in 
acquiring gold, and that the Kafir race should become 
one huge corps of miners to enable them to carry out 
the operation. For myself I often envied the simple 
wants and few troubles of these happy Magwambas. 

During the dance, the unfortunate ox that was 
doomed " to make a Kafir holiday " stood a quiet spec- 
tator of the scene, but was assegaied as the afternoon 
progressed, and the process of flaying was commenced 
before the animal was quite dead. Kafirs have no regard 
for animal suffering; they carefully tend their oxen while 
alive, but when once it is decided to slaughter an 
animal, all consideration for the beast vanishes and the 
same individual can be as cruel a butcher as he was 
formerly a kind and attentive shepherd. The meat 
was quickly stripped from the carcass, numerous small 
fires were made, and the ox was soon a thing of the 
past. It is during such feasts that savage instincts 
are really seen, and we recognize that self-restraint 
and gentle manners after all are the true marks of 
civilization. 

The authenticity of many travellers' accounts of 
the religious beliefs and origins of customs among 
so-called savage races have been long doubted, and 
on this journey I found the utmost difficulty in 
extracting any reliable or exact information from the 
Magwambas. I could only be told by one what was 
too often contradicted by another, and this, not because 
of their untruthfulness, but simply owing to our mutual 
ignorance of each other's meaning. Nor was it due to 
a want of knowledge of their language, as my host was a 




MAGWAMBA ASSEGAIS AND SHIELD. 



ZOUTPANSBERG AND THE MAGWAMBAS. 107 

thorough linguist, and, what was more, remained on the 
most friendly and trusted relations with them. One 
must live for some time with the Magwambas, and as a 
Magwamba, before any true insight can be obtained into 
their real speculative opinions, and then very few of them 
have clear notions on these points. It would be the same 
if a learned and anthropological Magwamba was pos- 
sible, who should visit England and in a short time 
endeavour to study the origin and meaning of much 
theological and philosophical reasoning found in our 
midst. If he mixed only with our lower classes he 
would find little opinion at all; our middle classes 
would give him varied and often erroneous definitions ; 
whilst among those of leisure he would find Galileos 
who cared for none of these things. So it is, in a 
more moderate degree, among native races, where are 
also found the totally ignorant, the thoroughly mis- 
taken, and the supremely indifferent, as elsewhere. 

The Magwambas are not the only tribe of Bantu 
Kafirs living in the Spelonken. The Makatese, 
originally fugitives from the Basuto and Bechuana 
countries and taking their name from the supposition 
that they were all subjects of Ma Ntatisi*, are now 
the most numerous in Zoutpansberg, and, under the 
chief Magato, are located on a long mountain range 
which exhibits one of the glories of the landscape. The 
Makatese, I was informed, now number upwards of 
thirty thousand. 

The Mavenda Kafirs are a branch of the Makatese, 
and closely allied to the Basutos, and amongst these 
people iron-smelting and manufactured iron-work in 
a rough way is carried on. My friend arranged that 
I should witness the making of a "pick" or agri- 
cultural hoe, the principal article fabricated, and the 
head Mavenda sent me his pony on which to ride to 
his home on the summit of a hill, where I was received 
by himself and assistants under a thatched roof where 
the primitive forge was erected. The fire was soon 

* G. McCall Theal, ' History of the Boers,' p. 63. 



108 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

lighted, charcoal being used, and a small calabash con- 
taining iron (the ore procured from an iron mountain in 
the vicinity and previously smelted) was produced, the 
contents of which were thrown on the fire when sufficiently 
heated. When the metal was fused it was laid on a large 
block of stone and beaten into shape by another heavy 
stone wielded with great force by a stalwart and adept 
assistant, and it was interesting to watch how, with these 
rough implements, the pick slowly but surely grew into 
shape. It was taken from the forge by a rough pair 
of tongs held by the head man, who always whistled 
during the time he thus held it on the stone anvil, 
and his assistant with a grunt brought down his heavy 
weight on the exact spot indicated by his chief. 
During the whole time two men took it in turn to blow 
the bellows made of buck or goat skin, with the hollow 
horns of antelopes for the funnel, whilst several visitors 
squatted round and watched the operation. It was 
living in the iron age, and thought travelled back to 
the bygone times in human progress. These picks 
are greatly valued by Kafir agriculturists, always 
maintaining a value of about five shillings, and are 
greatly preferred to those made in Birmingham, which 
can be imported and sold for less money. 

The manufacture of the pick forms thus a true 
native industry, and in this region is almost confined 
to the Mavendas, amongst whom, I was assured, there 
was a recognized compact that none should be sold under 
a certain price. The Mavendas by their industrial arts 
are thus more advanced in material progress than the 
Magwambas, with whom they live in contact, though the 
Magwamba women always wear a petticoat, and the 
female Mavendas have simply the ordinary waist- 
bandage. But though much less clothed, the Mavenda 
women are better-looking and exhibit the signs of 
more intellect than the Magwambas possess. Material 
progress and clothing certainly do not always go 
together. 

I considerably added to my natural history collection 
during the ten days I spent at the Spelonken, awaiting 



ZO UTPANSBER G AND THE MA G WAMBAS. Ill 

the wagon for my return journey, and in this I was 
greatly assisted by the Magwamba boys, who, on finding 
that there was really a market, set thoroughly to work 
in procuring specimens. Birds were mostly brought 
alive, as the lads were adepts at trapping, or when 
killed they were generally in perfect condition, as the 
blunted wooden, arrow-head was used. At first some 
of the men would bring a small bird pierced by a 
bullet shot from an old " Brown Bess " ; but they soon 
knew the requirements better, and a good ornitholo- 
gical collection could have been obtained had I 
possessed leisure to remain longer on the spot. The 
great trouble was to prevent them bringing the same 
thing over and over again, and to make them under- 
stand that insects were valueless when crushed; but 
they really experienced pleasure in trapping and 
shooting birds, and would attentively watch the process 
of skinning. As the lads brought in my prizes, I 
recalled the same arrangement made years before with 
the Nicobarians in the Bay of Bengal and the Malays 
of Province Wellesley. 

Animal life was, however, scarce, the dry season had 
just commenced and birds had generally left the 
neighbourhood. The only predatory beast was the 
Jackal (Canis mesomelas], whose shrill cries or screams 
had broken our rest and disturbed the deep stillness 
of the night as we journeyed up in the wagon. On 
our arrival at the store we heard that these animals 
had been prowling around and had dragged away a dried 
hide a few nights previously. Buck were very scarce, one 
species only, the Duyker (Cephaloloplms grimmii\ being 
obtained during my stay. No quantity of big game 
can now exist near a Kafir location since the intro- 
duction of firearms, and the natives have learned to 
use a gun with much greater precision than in their 
early fights with the Boers, when they frequently shut 
both eyes before firing. 

The dry veld now no longer contained its rich variety 
and myriad numbers of orthopterous insects, and this, 
I believe, was the cause of the almost utter absence of 



112 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

birds in the spots where they were previously so 
abundant. In the Transvaal I found that almost all 
birds fed on this rich banquet of the rainy season, and 
I have even seen the crops of Kestrels (Cerchneis 
tinnunculoides and amurensis) crammed with the 
remains of these insects; the Short-eared Owl (Asio 
capensis) also feeds on large Coleoptera, the crop of 
one specimen I procured containing nothing else. 
As soon as the dry season recommences there is an 
absolute dearth of insect-life on the veld, and birds 
must then seek other areas in quest of food. The 
most showy bird in the Spelonken was the Roller 
(Coracias caudata\ and the curious cry of the Grey 
Plantain-eater (Schizorhis concolor) was generally to be 
heard when one rambled among the trees ; whilst in 
Francolins, Francolimts subtorquatus and F. yariepensis 
replaced the Francolinus levaillantii which I had 
recently found so plentiful in Pretoria. Here also I 
observed and obtained the great Jackal Buzzard (Ruteo 
jaJcal), which I never met with in the Pretoria 
district. 

The best entomological spot found in Zoutpansberg 
was on the banks of the Dwaas River near the ford 
which forms part of the high road ; on the damp 
sandy banks hovered clusters of small yellow butter- 
flies (Terias brigitta and T. zoe\ like constellations of 
primrose-blooms, and in the same spots the dragonfly 
(Trithemis sanguinolenta) literally swarmed; besides 
these species I procured, during a half-hour's stay, the 
pretty Teracolus siibfasciatus, besides several other 
species of the same genus, and on the wing captured 
different species of Buprestidce and Longicornia. As 
this was at the end of the summer, it should prove a 
good locality at the right season for a travelling 
collector. I could have pleasantly passed the day on 
these wooded and sandy banks, but the oxen were once 
more inspanned and my friend was anxious to resume 
his journey home. Species of Teracolus abounded all 
along the road, and I often walked behind the wagon 
net in hand with the best results; it was thus that I 



ZOUTPANSBERG AND THE MAOWAMBAS. 113 

captured the only specimen of Teracolus vesta I found 
in the Transvaal. 

Zoutpansberg is one of the richest districts of the 
Transvaal, if not the very richest, so far as fertility of soil 
is concerned ; its auriferous deposits are highly spoken 
of ; its scenery is in many places superb and in strong 
contrast to the melancholy monotony of the high veld. 
To leave Pretoria and in two or three days reach the 
natural beauties of Zoutpansberg, after necessarily 
traversing the pleasant Waterberg district, is like 
exchanging a wilderness for fairyland. That high 
tableland of treeless veld, with its everlasting monotony 
of plain and kopje, is fit abode for the quiet and 
unimaginative Boer ; its very sameness reminds him, 
or, rather, appeals to his fancy, of the plains of Palestine, 
of which he reads so much and understands so little ; 
solitude not nature appeals to his mind, and Words- 
worth in these w-orthy folk would have found a people 
who had given their hearts away from nature without 
the excuse of the world being too much with them. 
But when we descend to the lower lands of Zout- 
pansberg, with its warmer air, its rich vegetation, 
and its happy Kafir population, our touch with Nature 
seems to be once more resumed. However, Zout- 
pansberg is not alone destined for the dreams of a 
Rousseau, it may yet prove the gem of the Transvaal. 
Give a rail connecting it with Pretoria and from thence 
to the sea, and this fertile land would produce the 
richest farms on the face of the globe. What incentive 
is there now to struggle for an agricultural produce 
that could find no market ? this long and costly trans- 
port would prove the ruin of the farmer who culti- 
vated this life-giving land. Take maize alone and 
compare its vplue in Zoutpansberg with its price 
in Pretoria, and still the much lower figure is more 
profitable to the grower than the higher obtainable in 
the capital, for the cost of carriage would entail a 
loss, and the time employed for the same would 
prove the destruction of all fresh goods that demand 
early consumption. A rail would also develop its 

I 



114 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



mining capacities, and had these lines been earlier 
constructed Pretoria might have become the terminus 
for Central Africa. 

As I returned the dry season proclaimed its advent 
by the frequency of grass-fires, and the few residents 
one met affirmed that the rains were over for the season ; 
so certain were they on this score that my wagon was 
not even provided with its sail-covering in case of wet, 
an omission that might have caused much discomfort, 
as a storm went before us to Pietersburg and exceed- 
ingly heavy rain fell there on May 2nd, the day before 
we arrived. At Pietersburg we met men going up to 
and coming down from Mashonaland; and though 
much doubt still exists, we shall see whether British 
enterprise in that new Protectorate is not as capable of 
producing a country, from a " geographical expression," 
as successfully as other influences have created the 
Transvaal, thanks to its auriferous deposits and its 
attendant European settlers. 





U 



MAG^.VAMBA CARVINOS. 



( 115 




Pfogiorrkma 



Packnoda 

favlieiitri 



APPLE-DESTROYKBS IN NATAL. 



CHAPTER VII. 



A JOURNEY TO DURBAN. 

Acacia molllssima. Heavy cost on imports to the Transvaal. Johannes- 
burg and its Hotels. Heidelberg. A Priest of Islam. Across the 
Ingogo heights to Newcastle. Durban. Colonel Bowker. Best 
collecting-grounds around Durban. Flowers, fruit, and insects. 
Peculiarities in railway construction. Model Natal farms. Insect-pests 
to gardens. Difficulties in coaching after heavy rains. The store- and 
rai: teen-keeper of the veld. 

IN December 1890 I journeyed to Natal for the pur- 
poses of visiting the farms where the Wattle (Acacia 
mollissima) was cultivated, from which is stripped 

i2 



116 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

the " Mimosa-bark," that now supplies a large quantity 
of tanning-material for export to England. I may 
here at once state, and the fact will explain the 
difficulties and expense of transport to the Transvaal, 
that I found this bark could be absolutely delivered at 
2 per ton less in London than at Pretoria. The culti- 
vation of these "Wattles" is largely on the increase, 
and will considerably add to the exports from Durban. 

Christmas had passed without pleasure, for, even 
stripped of the pagan accessories of holly and mistletoe, 
it will always be to Englishmen a time of family 
reunion, and my thoughts were with my family away in 
snow-covered Surrey. On " boxing-day " I left by the 
coach for Johannesburg, and once more began to retrace 
my steps towards the sea. It soon commenced to rain, 
and we subsequently drove through a white mist or 
damp fog, such as I had not seen since leaving home, 
and which seemed little in keeping with what one 
anticipates in South-east Africa. 

Johannesburg, which we reached about 7 P.M., is the 
veritable Chicago of South Africa. The Rand is high, 
healthy, and cool, and the atmosphere quite invigorating 
after the close and still air of sheltered Pretoria. The 
surrounding country looks bare and desolate in the 
extreme, there are scarcely any trees to be seen, there 
is nothing picturesque, but there is Johannesburg and 
the site of the finest gold-producing reef in the country. 
It is here that the real pulse of the Transvaal is felt, 
though the heart may beat at Pretoria. Young trees 
are being planted in considerable numbers, and by the 
time these have grown and added sylvan beauty to the 
spot, may commercial prosperity also have returned to a 
town that holds so many of our countrymen and con- 
tains so much capital belonging to English investors. 
Gold is the main strength of the Transvaal, but its 
quest by unscrupulous company promoters has been its 
curse. 

It was a great relief at Johannesburg to once more 
stay in a comfortable hotel, especially with single-bedded 
rooms. To occupy a double-bedded room without 



A JOURNEY TO DURBAN. 117 

having seen the other guest, who may turn in very 
late, and perhaps not sober, is what 1 once or twice 
experienced during my stay in the country, but which 
I gladly relinquished when possible. The Grand 
National Hotel was built at the time of the greatest 
prosperity of Johannesburg, and the cashier assured me 
that the takings then averaged 200 daily ; but at the 
time of my visit the receipts only amounted to about a 
fourth of that sum. Some of the smaller hotels were vir- 
tually closed, and fires had become somewhat frequent. 
I remember years ago travelling with an American who 
praised in no half-hearted way his native Chicago. Some 
considerable conflagrations having recently occurred 
there, I ventured to remark that fires sometimes took 
place. That is nothing, replied my companion : " when 
a business man in Chicago is going to fail, he burns his 
place down." 

I left Johannesburg at 5 A.M. on a fine Sunday 
morning for the long coach-drive to Newcastle. The 
journey was scarcely different to what I had formerly 
experienced, save that the coach was less crowded and 
the veld was now green in its summer dress, whereas it 
was in winter brown when I crossed before. But the 
sky was now clouded, frequent showers of rain occurred, 
and one missed the lovely warm umber tints of the veld 
and hills as seen under the clear winter sky. 

We reached Heidelberg about 10 A.M., a small and 
early established town, but, like the rest, suffering from 
the present depression. It has a considerable "coolie" 
or Indian population, and a priest of Islam, who had 
been travelling through the South-African diocese, 
joined the coach. He was certainly one of the most 
handsome men I had ever met. Tall and of graceful 
stature, he possessed a perfectly formed and chiselled 
mouth, such as one seldom sees in man, but is found 
principally in women of the classical type of beauty ; 
and with an aquiline nose was also combined the dark 
soft spiritual eyes which mark the true type of the 
visionary priest of all creeds. This man was evidently 
of good birth, as proved by the ease, confidence, and 



118 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

repose of his manners ; he was seen into the coach with 
great respect by his native friends, and was in like 
manner received when he arrived at Standerton, for 
this peripatetic theologian was evidently entertained 
like a minister visiting a conference at home. At one 
of the stages, where we changed horses, there was a 
Boer's house, where tea was supplied to travellers 
at sixpence per cup. I and my other British travelling 
companion entered a small room to partake of this 
soothing beverage ; the Mussulman followed, but was 
indignantly warned away by the Boer woman to take 
his tea outside. The good-natured ease and polish 
expressed in a wave of the hand, by which he declined 
this form of entertainment, was in strong contrast to the 
dull features marked by stolid ignorance or stupidity 
belonging to the female dweller on the plains, in whose 
eyes this man was simply a common " coolie," no more 
than a Kafir entitled to enter her humble abode, or 
associate with her white customers. It was the meeting 
of ignorance with education, but with power in the 
hands of the first. The roads were very heavy, and the 
hard iron paths, over which we had previously travelled 
on our way out, were now often replaced by miles of 
soft mud, through which the coach progressed with the 
greatest difficulty. We reached Standerton about 8 P.M. 
to dine and sleep, with instructions to be ready to start 
at 3 A.M. the next morning. This was carried out 
punctually, and as the proprietor of this " Hotel " only 
provided early coffee, when there were not too few 
passengers to make it financially worth his while, and, 
as there were only two on this occasion, we started at 
break of dawn, and drove 16 miles before reaching a 
small and lone canteen then surrounded by a sea of 
mud. Here the welcome coffee was obtained. By noon 
we arrived at the confines of the Transvaal, entered 
Natal, and were once more under the old flag. 

We now changed coaches and started for Newcastle, 
traversing again the spot where Briton and Boer met in 
deadly and unnecessary conflict. The hill at Laings 
Nek was in a very bad condition, owing to the late 



A JOURNEY TO DURBAN. 119 

rains, and the oxen drawing the transport wagons were 
terribly distressed as they drew their heavy loads up the 
steep ascent and through the deep mire. From this 
part to near Newcastle the road was one of the worst 
I had ever travelled over. We had exchanged the 
ponderous coach for a light kind of wagonette, which 
was better able to traverse the yielding soil ; heavy rain 
descended and came through the canvas roof and side 
coverings of the vehicle ; water poured down the steep 
hill-roads in rivulets, and the scene arid surroundings 
were desolate in the extreme, especially when we 
crossed the Ingogo heights, where monument and cross 
denote the burial-place of so many British soldiers. 

Our driver was a Cape boy, our conductor a half-bred 
Indian, whose father, he told me, had been an English- 
man. Both exhibited an inclination to make merry of 
England and her soldiers on a basis of Boer supremacy. 
As a delicate piece of sarcasm the driver at length asked 
me if we grew pine-apples in England. Certainly, I 
replied, in glass houses at home, and plentifully in the 
open air in that part of Britain called Natal. But you 
would not call me an Englishman 1 he asked, in startled 
surprise. Certainly, I replied, if you were born and 
are living under the British nag, under British law, 
and prepared to maintain British rule. Ah! but, he 
remarked, all Englishmen don't say that, most of them 
call Natal "Kafir-land.'* I cannot help that, I responded, 
I call Natal England as much as I do Scotland, and one 
day, 1 hope, Ireland. 

We reached Newcastle about 6.30. This town is 
rapidly becoming a prosperous one ; it possesses abun- 
dance of coal in the neighbourhood, but the Transvaal 
Government have placed a prohibitive duty on that 
article being imported into the Republic, which is thus 
prevented from becoming a customer. Probably, how- 
ever, Newcastle has reached its zenith, and the railway 
will not only pass it by, but carry a considerable portion 
of its trade to the terminus at the frontier. 

Since my visit, the railway, in April of this year 
1891, has been completed and opened to Charles- 



120 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

town, thus bringing the line to the Transvaal frontier 
and under the shadow of Majuba Hill. Thus far it has 
come from the sea at Durban ; its continuance depends 
upon the sanction of the Boer Government. The pro- 
gress of this line has been slow but continuous. The 
first instalment was made in 1860, with a short section 
connecting the point with Durban. It was not till 
1873 that a further move was made, when powers were 
obtained for pushing on the line to the Drakensberg. 
Pinetown was reached in 1878, and the capital (Maritz- 
burg) two years later ; Howick, 1884 ; Ladysmith, 1886 ; 
Elands Laagte, 1888; Biggarsberg, 1889; Newcastle, 
1890 ; and now Charlestown and the frontier, 1891. 
The great engineering feat of this last extension is the 
tunnel through Laings Nek, which was bored through a 
hill 3200 feet wide (the actual tunnel is 2213 ft. 6 in. 
long), consisting of the hardest indurated shale, with the 
addition of three dykes of whinstone. It was completed 
in October of this year 1891, after having occupied an 
average of 430 coloured and 60 white men upwards 
of two years in its construction. About 85,000 tons of 
slate and whinstone have been excavated, and upwards 
of 8000 tons of masonry have been required for the 
purposes of lining ; there have also been used over 
40,000 Ibs. of dynamite, 4000 Ibs. of powder, 70,000 
yards of fuse, and 50,000 detonators in the necessary 
blasting-operations. Thus Laings Nek may now be 
associated with a monument of our colonial enterprise, 
and its painful military memories be forgotten. Already, 
when I passed down, the neighbourhood of Charlestown 
was being covered with the iron-roofed huts of the 
advance guard of commerce, and soon many of the spots 
celebrated only for a useless carnage will be almost 
obliterated by the dwellings of a trading community. 

The train left Newcastle at 7.15 P.M., and thus the 
night was passed in traversing a region which I had 
seen by day on my journey out. Political divisions do not 
alter the physical aspects of a region, and after passing 
the grand mountainous scenery between Charlestown 
and Newcastle, the country once more resumes the flat 



A JOURNEY TO DURBAN. 121 

and uninteresting appearance of the Transvaalian veld. 
This is gradually transformed after leaving Ladysrnith, 
but does not altogether improve till we approach the 
neighbourhood of Maritzburg. Then lovely valleys, grand 
mountain-gorges, stretches of hills rolling far away and 
fading on the sky-line, beautiful verdure, and (what 
was even more to the wearied Transvaal eyes) forest 
appeared, interspersed occasionally by small rivers or 
spruits. Halfway between Maritzburg and Durban we 
are reminded of greater warmth and another aspect 
of vegetation. Tree-ferns and bamboos are now seen, 
and lower down fields of bananas and pine-apples, with 
patches of sugar-cane, recalled old days lived in the 
tropics. 

It was raining at Durban when I arrived, and there 
was a mist over the sea ; but what a pleasure the sight 
of the ocean is after living on the dry and almost water- 
less tableland of the Transvaal ! Of course the usual 
" Currie " and " Union " steamers were seen at anchor, 
and these, with other steam lines, have now as effec- 
tually superseded the sailing passenger-vessels that for- 
merly journeyed to Natal as though they had rammed 
and sank them. 

The Museum, which occupies a well-lighted and lofty 
apartment above the Town Hall, is in course of evolu- 
tion. It is poor in mammals, but is beginning to obtain 
a good collection of birds, well set up and in cases that 
contain much available room for additions. In insects 
the strongest element is butterflies, a fine collection 
properly arranged and named, as might be expected in 
a town possessing as resident such an old lepidopterist 
as Colonel Bowker. I was glad to meet the Colonel, 
the best field entomologist in South Africa, who has 
invented a net he wears on his hat like a puggaree, and 
which is ready to be affixed to the stick he carries in his 
hand for instant use when a desired specimen is seen, 
whilst an original pocket collecting-box has also been 
devised by this active lepidopterological brain. I spent 
New Year's day with him at his bungalow at Malvern, a 
suburb of Durban, a lovely spot, embracing on one side 



122 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

an extensive sea- view, and behind a vast extent of 
undulating scenery such as Natal can so lavishly 
exhibit. It is such a subtropical spot as a naturalist 
might choose in which to happily live and cheerfully 
die. 

Col. Bowker is now endeavouring, by cultivating the 
old Natal plants and flowers, to prevent many of them 
being practically relegated to oblivion, and I was par- 
ticularly pleased to see, entangling a bushy tree, an 
old friend of my greenhouse at home, the Jamaica 
Passion-flower (Passiflora quadrangularis}. 

Durban holds, high holiday at the advent of the new 
year, for here Scottish blood flows thick, and the old 
days of Scotland are ne'er forgot. I could thus for some 
days pursue none of the business for which I had visited 
the port, and was able to pay some attention to its 
entomological attractions. As soon as I arrived I saw 
I was in a rich spot of insect-life, and one possessing a 
different facies to that of the Transvaal. Around the 
trees in the town flew a handsome moth (Egybolia 
millantina), whilst at evening, in the smoking-room at 
the hotel facing the sea, the fine Saturniid moth Urota 
sinope paid occasional visits attracted by the light, 
accompanied by lamellicorn beetles of the genus 
Adoretus, and other insects. A stroll in front of the 
hotel before breakfast resulted in the capture of the 
pretty longicorn beetle Rhaphidopsis zonaria, the morning 
after my arrival, whilst butterflies swarmed over the 
scrub that covers the back beach. 

There are three good spots for the collector in 
Durban, and each easily approached. The first and 
probably the best is the " Bluff," the headland at the 
harbour mouth, and on which the lighthouse stands. 
It is backed by an extensively wooded district, and a 
somewhat representative collection of Natal insects 
might be made during a season's work at the spot. The 
second best-ground is about the Berea, the high land 
overlooking the town, where the principal residences are 
also found ; here the entomologist should seek the site 
of the old windmill, approached from the Toll Bar on 



A JOURNEY TO DURBAN. 123 

the Tram Line. The third hunting-ground is in the 
"Wood" or "Bush" that runs continuous to the beach, 
and to one whose time and opportunities were limited its 
proximity to the hotel rendered it available for an other- 
wise busy man. Here butterflies haunt the narrow 
paths, cicadas (at the time of my visit Platypleura 
punctigera was the dominant species) utter their shrill 
cries, and beetles are probably abundant at the com- 
mencement of the wet summer season. I found here, 
as at the Transvaal, that after rains, when the leaves 
were damp, more beetles could be found on them than 
in dry weather, when Coleoptera are to a greater extent 
on the wing. 

It was a delightful sensation to be roaming in these 
thickly wooded glades, though in Durban summer heat. 
Butterflies abounded, of which the most common were 
Acrcea natalica and Planema esebria, high up amongst 
the trees flew Salamis anacardii, ever and anon down 
the narrow paths came the sulphur-and-red Eronia leda ; 
Papilio morania and P. demoleus were not uncommon, 
whilst Teracolus of many species enlivened the scene. 
In moths the gaily-marked Euchromia africana, by the 
rapid vibration of its wings in flight, would cause con- 
siderable doubt as to what insect was observed, and, 
till I became acquainted with its peculiar habits, I 
frequently mistook it for a species belonging to another 
order of insects ; the modest Leptosoma apicalis was 
found in shady nooks, and Aphelia apolinaris took long 
and high flight in the clear light of noon-day. The 
showy Neuropteron Palpopleura lucia flitted about, 
and on blooming plants I not only found the handsome 
beetle Popillia bipunctata, but a variety of Cetoniids 
such as Coptomia itmbrosa, Elaphinis irrorata and late- 
costata, Trichostetha placida, and the curious Telephorid 
Lycus bremei. 

For a naturalist, especially an entomologist, intending 
to study the fauna of South-eastern Africa, Durban is 
the best introduction to the country. A month spent 
at this port collecting and observing would give a 
thorough introduction to the southern portion of the 



124 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Ethiopian fauna. Subtropical Durban could thus 
become a tropical training-ground for the exploring 
naturalist, who would be able to develop that simplicity 
in requirements and acquire that amplitude and method 
in observation which are so often more laboriously learned 
at the cost of missed opportunities when he reaches the 
interior. There is a lore in collecting natural objects 
which can only be acquired by practice, for until the 
habits and haunts of animals are understood they will 
not be searched for in the right spots, and necessarily 
will not therefore be found. A traveller often passes over 
a rich and unexplored zoological region which he only 
samples through having had no preparatory training as 
might for Southern Africa be obtained at Durban. But, 
of far more importance, the power of observation is 
quickened by an early appreciation of what and how to 
observe, so that the capture of an animal will soon 
become of less importance than a knowledge of its 
relation to its environment. I could not help contrasting 
the diiferent mental conceptions which dominated me 
when collecting in the Malay Peninsula twenty-two 
years previously and those which now occupied my 
mind in a similar quest at Durban. Then almost the 
sole aim was the discovery of new species ; now the 
constant wish was to make some small discovery to add 
to the ever-increasing knowledge of how animals derived 
their present shape and coloration in the struggle for 
existence. These pleasant Durban glades, where insect- 
life so freely exhibited itself, were now no longer only 
emporiums to supply museum drawers with specimens, 
but were full of nature's records of the past like hiero- 
glyphic writings, but unlike them, most at present we 
cannot read. It was now the cult of Darwin that 
seemed wafted in the air, and I felt like an eclectic 
Pagan finding a shrine to philosophy amidst these 
African groves. 

It was on a Christmas day that Vasco da Gama 
reached and named Natal, at the height of summer and 
amidst the glories of a vegetation as I now saw it. 
Although four hundred years have elapsed since that 



A JOURNEY TO DURBAN. 125 

discovery, Natal has only been colonized in quite recent 
times, and its flora, save by introduced plants, has had 
insufficient time to be radically altered. The gardens 
were gay at the time of my visit with the flowers of 
several vaiieties of Hibiscus, aloes exhibited their huge 
flowering-spikes, and lovely creepers in full bloom were 
quite common. The fruit-market rejoiced with pine- 
apples, mangoes, bananas, and other vegetable products 
of a subtropical nature, which add a charm to Durban, 
and, apart from its summer heat, I would more willingly 
live and die at that port than in any other part of 
Southern Africa. 

The beach in front of the hotel at which I stayed had, 
however, other characteristics beside its beauty. One 
suicide and two dead bodies washed up during my stay 
of five days was rather a ghastly, though, I believe, 
unusual spectacle. One body was described to me by 
a " morgue " enthusiast as particularly curious from 
the fact that only the face and boots were perfect, 
and he seemed somewhat chagrined that I did not 
allow him to guide me to this gruesome sight before 
lunch, for which he said " there was just time." 

I left Durban by the morning train for the north, 
intending to visit the bark farms of the interior. 
Perhaps few railways exhibit more singular freaks of 
construction and engineering skill than this Natal line. 
When mountains cannot be avoided, the rails run 
round them in serpentine arrangement, and to avoid 
these elevations, when possible, the line takes such a 
devious course as to frequently give the impression that 
one is returning to the spot only just previously left, while 
the curves are so sudden that you can often see both 
ends of the train at the same time. A story is told 
of an engine-driver who pulled up in obedience to the 
danger-light belonging to the rear guard's break of his 
own train, which, in the intricacies of the curves, had 
become placed in front of him. 

Owing to the steep gradients, a single line of 
rails, and the number of small stations, progress is 
very slow, and my retnrn journey did not average 



126 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

much more than twelve miles per hour. I was much 
mistaken in the character of a fellow passenger who 
joined the train at Lady smith. On asking if he 
smoked, I received such a determined answer in the 
negative, with an assurance that he had never done 
so, that I took him for somewhat of a Puritan. He 
soon, however, produced a bottle of whiskey, which, 
by assiduity and perseverance, he quickly emptied 
and then lay full length and speechless on the seat 
before me. 

I broke my journey through Natal at Richmond Road, 
and had the pleasure of being entertained at a home of 
comfort on a model African farm. Here was a well- 
built residence furnished with taste, containing all the 
comforts of a home, and a library sufficient to prove 
that a farmer can be a gentleman and cultivate his 
mind as w r ell as the soil. What a contrast to the 
Boer farmers of the Transvaal ! I do not speak dis- 
paragingly, but comparatively. Men cannot for ever trek 
on into the wilds and live solitary lives with their 
families without losing most qualities of domestic 
refinement, even though acquiring personal inde- 
pendence. In pursuit of game or on a hunting expe- 
dition let me be allowed to accompany the Boer and 
share his wagon ; but the tie snaps when the time 
comes for the pleasures of personal intercourse and 
home life. 

In the fine garden attached to this Natal residence I 
was shown the difficulties attending the labours of the 
horticulturist owing to the ravages of injurious insects. 
The roses were literally covered and devastated by a 
Cantharid beetle (Mylabris transversals) and his apples 
were being completely eaten by two other beetles 
belonging to the family Cetoniidse (Plcesiorrliina plana 
and Pachnodafavivcntris). His principal enemies which 
occasioned his heaviest losses were the ticks (Acaridce), 
which attacked his live-stock with the most disastrous 
results ; clearly there is room for a state-paid economic 
naturalist in Natal. I was interested to learn that 
even in this colony, as in the Transvaal, material and 



A JOURNEY TO DURBAN. 



127 



industrial progress had been much retarded by the 
presence of the financial agent and company-promoter, 
of whom I was assured there were quite a colony 
in Maritzburg, and who my host described as " Hebrew 
Lilies, who toiled not neither did they spin." 

I left his house to catch the night train, driven in a 




Mylnbrit transversalis on Rose. 



Cape cart drawn by a pair of spirited horses guided by 
a native boy. The night was pitch dark, the roads bad, 
with a river to drive through, and yet we went at full 



128 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

speed without a single sign of hesitation on the part of 
the boy who held the reins. 

As the train sped along, and for thirty miles before 
we reached Newcastle, we constantly disturbed small 
flocks of the South- African Kestrel (Cerchneis rupicola). 
These birds were usually found two or three together 
and often on the ant-hills which bordered the line, 
taking flight as the train approached ; but I saw very 
few birds during this journey, and a fine pair of Paauw 
( Otis kori), walking on the open veld near the Ingogo 
heights, w r ere the most interesting of our ornithological 
observations. 

At Newcastle I once more joined the coach for Volks- 
rust, the first stage in Transvaal territory, and found 
as a travelling companion an Englishman who had been 
through the Boer war, and one of whose duties was now 
to see that the graves on the summit of Majuba were 
properly preserved. Again I listened to a truthful 
account by an eye-witness of the disaster for I had 
previously travelled with the war-correspondent of a 
London daily paper, and also of a carrier of despatches 
during the war, and again was the problem intensified 
as to the cause of all our disasters. He told me he had 
guided many travelling British officers up the mountain 
since the war and they always returned dispirited and 
perplexed. The disaster of Majuba has yet received 
no rational explanation, and it is said of General 
Joubert, that when the subject is mentioned he usually 
raises his hat and says the God of Battles fought for 
the Boers on that day. I have been on the spot three 
times, I have conversed on the subject with three eye- 
witnesses, I have heard a score of different theories about 
the fight from men of different nationalities whom I 
have met in the Transvaal, and I confess I do not 
understand it, and thought I knew more about it before 
I left England. 

Twelve days' heavy and continuous rain is sufficient 
to incommode the inner communications of any country ; 
but in a land like the Transvaal, where the rivers have 
few or no bridges and the roads are self-worn by 



A JOURNEY TO DURBAN. 129 

coaches and wagons across an endless veld, the way 
becomes stopped and communication almost ceases. 
On reaching Volksrust in the rain and dark after a 
terrible journey across the flooded heights, we found 
no coach had been able to pass for three days, and the 
passengers had thus accumulated in the small wayside 
rest that passes by the name of hotel. The cause of 
the delay was the swollen and impassable condition of 
the spruit we had to cross a short distance further on, 
which had been daily approached but never attempted. 
We retired to rest four beds in the room, the latch 
of the door out of order and the rain pouring outside, 
and rose again at 3 A.M. to once more try and force the 
passage of the stream. When we reached it daylight 
had well broken, but there were ominous murmurs that 
the water was as " high as ever." A Kafir was sent 
across as a preliminary plummet : the stream reached his 
shoulders at the deepest part and carried him off his 
feet where the current ran strongest. It was, however, 
decided to risk the passage, by unharnessing the 
horses and letting the coach be pulled through by our 
Kafir friends, who now mustered somewhat strongly. 
Several of the passengers undressed and preferred 
swimming the stream to the danger of being overturned 
and washed away in the coach ; but I chose the latter 
alternative with a prospect of being able to keep 
warm and comfortable ; nor was I mistaken, for the 
coach, after threatening for about sixty seconds in the 
rush of the stream to end its present career of use- 
fulness, eventually passed soberly through and gained 
the other side. Our passengers now again dressed, the 
horses were swam through, and after having chased a 
runaway, that broke loose and enjoyed his liberty for 
half an hour, we resumed our journey. 

The Waterfal river was reached about sunset, and 
in place of the small and fordable stream we had 
crossed without difficulty some twelve days previously, 
there now flowed a wide and, in the centre, deep 
current not to be ventured by coach or horse. We 
crossed in a punt, and leaving our coach, transferred 

K 



130 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

ourselves and baggage to a heavy wagonette that was 
waiting for us on the other side, and then travelled in 
the dark for there was no moon till about 10 P.M., 
when a stage was reached where we could sleep for 
the night. Most, if not all, these sleeping and feeding 
stages are kept by men who combine the trade of store- 
and canteen-keeper with that of "hotel proprietor." 
These stores are small shops, which, however, contain 
everything that the Boer customers (for the farmers ride 
long distances to these depots) require, from grocery to 
saddlery, including cheesemongery, drapery, bread and 
spirits, boots and crockery, ironmongery and tobacco, in 
fact all the requirements of a somewhat rude existence 
may be purchased at these unpretending shanties. 
Strange to say, the prices do not appear to be very high, 
and taking into consideration that all the stock, is 
bought at second-hand, with a heavy transport added, the 
profits must be only moderate. However, these 
merchants are frugal, and their household expenses 
are necessarily light, so a moderate profit with a small 
turnover is yet something that produces a balance at 
the end of the year ; but the life must be dreary and 
monotonous, the arrival of the coach the only communi- 
cation with the outside world, and a few Boer customers 
the only other visitants, to break the ever present silence 
of the vast surrounding veld. Before daybreak we had 
again driven on, crossed the next river on a small raft 
floated by casks a driver of another coach was drowned 
here later in the same day and eventually reached 
Johannesburg at 9 P.M., instead of 1 P.M. the proper 
time. As we drove through the streets the canteens 
seemed to be the only places open, and I was told 
that at the time of the boom there were 280 of these 
establishments in the town ; now the trade has de- 
creased, there is little money for a carouse, and bad 
spirits are more difficult to sell. 

The details of this return journey will give some 
conception of how the development of the Transvaal is 
retarded by the want of railway communication with 
Natal and the sea. This is the road to be pursued and 



A JOURNEY TO DURBAN. 131 

these the rivers to be driven through by the ox- 
wagons which bring up the supplies of the country. 
Along this route travels the coach with the mails, and 
all the other main arteries of the Transvaal are of a 
similar nature and in a like condition. How can 
commercial prosperity be established under such con- 
ditions 1 But, on the other hand, did the farmers who 
trekked from the south and acquired this country desire 
the establishment of a commercial community and a 
network of railway communication'? The answer is 
clearly in the negative; it is the "Uitlander" who has 
been the pioneer and is still the support of commerce 
in the Transvaal ; and though the intelligence of the 
Boer community sees clearly that it is in its exports 
and imports that the prosperity of the country will 
largely depend, one can still sympathize with the 
majority of the farmers, who love the silence of their 
farms with the quiet existence and few wants, and 
enjoy that independence of life and character which 
is not usually attendant on trade, with all its other 
advantages. 



K 2 



( 132 ) 




KAFIR SHEPHERD. 

CHAPTER VIII. 



THE MEN OF PRETORIA. 

The inhabitants of Pretoria. Auriferous wealth alone the present cause 
of Transvaal development. Uneducated condition of the Boers. 
Liquor traffic with the Kafirs. The British colonist in the Transvaal. 
The Hebrew in Pretoria. Commercial morality. The name of 
Mr. Gladstone execrated in the Transvaal. The Kafir and his value 
as a labourer. Sanitary condition of Pretoria. Vital statistics. After- 
effects of the boom. Attachment of Colonists to their adopted 
country. 

WHO are the men of Pretoria? We have already 
spoken of the Boers, who are farmers and burghers, and 
not what are understood as merchants and citizens ; and 
in dealing with the population of the capital of the 
Transvaal a question more for the sociologist than the 



THE MEN OF PRETORIA. 133 

anthropologist the Boer may be treated as a non- 
resident factor altogether. Although Pretoria is the seat 
of government which is Boer, and the residence of the 
President who is a Boer, and the principal church in 
the principal square of the town is a Boer church, yet 
the Boer is still an emigrant, country-born Dutch farmer 
from the colony, who has to rely for judges, clergy, and 
civic administrators on the educated Dutch of the 
colony, or, what is worse, imported Hollanders who have 
neither the independence of the South-African spirit 
nor the necessary knowledge of local customs and insti- 
tutions. The Boer is a farmer pure and simple; the 
commercial prosperity of the Transvaal is a thing which 
he has not created, and which it is just possible he does 
not desire. The auriferous quartz of the Republic, 
worked by emigrants from all parts of the world, but 
principally by British, have filled the coffers of the Boer 
Treasury, made the large towns of the Transvaal, and 
brought the country to a position from which it must 
either advance or retire. Had it not been for the mineral 
wealth of the Republic, its exports must have princi- 
pally consisted of wool, hides, and skins, and it would 
have remained more of a large farming community than 
an industrial and political organization. But the dream 
of the early voortrckkers for a modern Palestine has not 
been realized ; in a land of mineral wealth it could not 
be ; they have many of them acquired wealth, but it 
must in the end prove their political extinction ; their 
only chance of permanency is to form one of the units 
or component parts of a United South- African Con- 
federacy, which in a hundred years they might influence, 
but less govern than Cromwell's puritans do the 
England of to-day. The Boer has only one chance to 
prevent his relegation to oblivion in a country of which 
he literally possessed himself, and which he secured 
only by rough living and hard fighting. That last chance 
is to immediately have his children properly educated ; 
and, from what I observed, that course is not likely 
to be pursued. What he won by the gun will be lost 
by the pen, and the trade and actual government of the 



134 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

country will be in the hands of the colonists from whom 
he trekked, the British whom he not unnaturally 
dislikes, and the Hollander, who in his heart he 
distrusts and hates. 

The present inhabitants of Pretoria, ignoring the few 
Boers for the reasons just given, are Colonials that is, 
descendants of colonists who have settled near the Cape 
or at Natal and even Australians, the Briton, the 
Hollander, the German, and Jews of various nationalities. 
Some of the largest stores belong to old British Colonists, 
who have come up to the Transvaal and now form a 
nucleus of the most reliable residents in the state. 
Many of these men are wealthy, their property is 
inseparably connected with the Transvaal, and having a 
large stake in the country, they do all they can to 
preserve its integrity, to develop its resources, and to 
improve the social condition of the towns in which they 
live. In the earlier days, before the influx of the 
mining migrants, their trade was principally carried on 
with Boers ; and though they now do a larger trade with 
the different nationalities who have made the Transvaal 
their home, they have not forgotten their earlier and 
still constant customers, and are true in their allegiance 
to the Republic. Fortunately some of these merchants 
do also a large Kafir trade, and the aborigines thus 
procure advocates whose interest it is to see that they 
are neither driven from the country nor prevented from 
earning a just wage, some of which must find its way to 
the store. Though undoubtedly large quantities of 
alcohol do pass from their hands and through their 
agents to the native races, to the utter demoralization 
and physical deterioration of the Kafir, who cannot drink 
in moderation when liquor is to be procured, the injury 
thus done is somewhat compensated by the interest 
these traders bestow in seeing that the Kafirs are not 
unduly oppressed by some native Commissioners, whose 
policy can only be improved by the utmost publicity that 
can be given to it. The British South-African Colonist 
is still destined to play a large part in the fortunes of 
the Transvaal. He is the merchant of to-day, and will 



THE MEN OF PRETORIA. 135 

be the merchant of the future. He knows the wants 
and interests of the region, and understands both the 
Boer and the Kafir. He has not the prejudices of the 
Englishman fresh from home, and he appreciates and 
is better able to deal with the prejudices of those with 
whom he is thrown in contact. What we call middle- 
class social life is also largely supported by the colonial 
merchants, and they are the backbone of the noncon- 
formist bodies in the Transvaal, of which the Wesleyans 
are far and aw r ay the strongest, and the Baptists making 
a beginning. Both in Natal and the Cape Colony, 
Boers were once numerous and are still found ; so that 
the colonist has really never quite lost touch with the 
people who now only inhabit a country which resembles 
and adjoins his. own. The youth of our two colonies 
are capable of supplying all the commercial clerks that 
may be needed for the commerce of the^Transvaal ; and 
if the Boers really understood their own interests, and 
were free from the domination of the Hollander, they 
would rely more on colonial friendship, and trouble 
themselves less with the idiosyncrasies of Downing 
Street. Common interests must produce fusion ; im- 
perialism perished with the disaster of Majuba ; a 
confederation of South- African States already exists in 
men's hearts, it will soon reach their minds, and even- 
tually be proclaimed by their mouths. Already, in the 
Transvaal, clear-headed men see that even commercial 
companies can neither be properly managed nor guided 
by a Board of Directors sitting in London ; how little, 
then, can we expect to prevent the inevitable South- 
African Confederacy, which will be mainly composed of 
English-speaking people 1. 

The Hebrew race is largely represented in the Trans- 
vaal, especially by those whose former home was in 
eastern Europe, and the Jew is destined to play a con- 
siderable and very influential part in the fortunes of the 
country. In a few years the Transvaal from being a 
purely geographical expression, inhabited by a pastoral 
community, has, by the utilization of its mineral wealth 
become a financial factor in the dealings of the Stock 



136 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Exchange at home, and an often regretted part in the 
income-earning capital of private families. On this 
bare South- African tableland fortunes have been made 
by those who had nothing, and others have lost what 
they had previously acquired elsewhere. Commercial 
and mining companies were once of daily formation, as 
though the whole country was one vast gold-reef, and 
the Transvaal was to redress the financial balance of 
Europe. The Jews have long possessed a genius for 
dealing with precious stones and for being the best 
financiers in the world. Diamonds brought them to 
Kimberley, the discovery of gold-bearing reefs proved 
at once a magnetic attraction to the Transvaal ; they 
largely created Johannesburg and its stock exchange 
now so silent, and their element has proved a consider- 
ably constructive one in the formation of a commercial 
community, many branches of which are now almost 
entirely their own. With the untiring energy and 
industry of the race, they have explored the whole country 
in search of subjects for financial speculations, and their 
knowledge of the Transvaal I estimate as far higher than 
that of the Boers, who may, and doubtless do, excel 
them in the possession of geographical details, but do not 
approach their profound appreciation of the present and 
future commercial capacity of the state. The Jew, 
again, has a racial, but no particular political, nationality, 
and thus can prosper with less suspicion and friction 
amongst the burghers, who are naturally proud of the 
development they see going on around them, yet know 
it is not their work, and feel mistrust as to their future 
independence in a purely Boer condition. And yet in 
other respects the two races have little in common. No 
one can deny that the Boer in his religion is a narrow 
bigot, and not only in his heart dislikes unbelievers, but 
would probably deny the right of a Jew or any pro- 
nounced heretic to hold an administrative part in the 
Republic. On the other hand the Boer is a natural 
sportsman, a pleasure which the Jew little appreciates, 
who is at home in shop or counting-house, for which 
the Boer has neither aptitude nor predilection. The 



THE MEN OF PRETORIA. 137 

Jew also by his very cosmopolitanism becomes a good 
citizen, and some of the largest industries are being 
founded by him. His natural gaiety leavens the solemn 
national lump of Boer respectability. His literary 
abilities have largely contributed to .the success of the 
Press, and in the Transvaal he is always " en evidence." 
I am speaking of the intelligent Jew, and not the scum of 
Houndsditch, which may also too plentifully be found, 
but which no more represents the race than numerous 
drunken ruffians who hail from Britain are to be taken 
as typical Englishmen. Like the travelling Christian, 
the migratory Jew does not let the rules of his creed 
sit very heavily on his shoulders ; both eat at the same 
table of the same food, and there seems no particular 
restriction as to meat. Both creeds also afforded unique 
representatives. A Polish Jew who sat at my hotel 
table, and proved a very amusing companion, belonged 
to the most orthodox Hebrew sect ; he was fairly 
learned in the Bible and Talmud, was of extreme and 
often violent orthodox-bigotry, but plainly admitted that 
his views had no claim on him in Pretoria, as Jews 
were only there to make money, and he certainly did 
not seek to remove that impression. I also knew a 
Hollander, who passed as a devout Christian, and who 
often told me that the Bible he read every day was the 
best of all books, and the New Testament his special 
delight. He also informed me of the different stages by 
which he was endeavouring to obtain a government 
appointment, in which the salary could be increased, not 
by bribes, but by what he more euphoniously called 
" additions that fell between the quay and the ship." 
But I regret to say that both of these acquaintances, 
the Jew and the Christian, had considerable doubts as 
to my orthodoxy, and regarded me with all the suspicion 
of " odium theologicum." 

Commercial morality is a matter of constant evolu- 
tion, subject to the stage of surrounding public opinion 
in which it exists. Some fortunes held in the Transvaal 
were mainly begun by the profit of buying diamonds 
from Kafirs who did not state the means by which 



138 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

they were obtained. Kafir robberies at the diamond- 
mines in time approached such large dimensions, that 
repressive penal acts were passed and enforced against 
these indiscriminative purchases. Consequently now on 
Cape Town breakwater may be seen convicts who 
arrived in the country too late for illicit diamond buying 
to be considered as one of the arts of a clever speculator. 
In a few years, even if it is not now the case, it will be 
considered bad taste to introduce the topic of amateur 
diamond purchases in some large, wealthy, and highly 
respectable South- African establishments. The " illicit 
diamond-buyer " is to-day the " company promoter," 
and public opinion, as soon as the law awakes, will 
equally approve of some professors of " notation " 
joining their diamond-buying predecessors in undignified 
seclusion. 

Our own countrymen form no inconsiderable portion 
of the Transvaal population ; but the descendants of 
many will be of South-African birth, for there is an old 
and true proverb, "he who has once lived in South 
Africa will return to it again." When once the 
Transvaal is crossed by railways, the British farmer who 
is willing to permanently leave his old country and 
settle in what ought to be one of the finest farming 
regions of the world, will find a land worthy of his 
adoption. To the present time the resources of the 
Transvaal have only been sought beneath its surface, 
which remains practically untilled and untouched. 
The Boer farmer is simply a possessor of flocks and 
herds, and will probably remain so ; the only hope of 
his being aroused from this deadly apathy, which 
keeps back the hands which register development on 
the clock of his country, is to encourage other farmers 
to settle in his midst, and show him what may be made 
of this wilderness. But the farmer must wait for the 
railway, and the railway will largely depend on the 
produce of the farmer. Johannesburg to-day is the 
most English town in the Transvaal; Pietersburg the 
most German; Pretoria the most cosmopolitan. One 
of the strangest features amongst the English is to find 



THE MEN OF PRETORIA. 139 

so many who would do equally well, if not b.etter, at 
home. Many young fellows come out full of hope, 
who have had no other training but that most hopeless 
vocation of commercial clerk. Of course, some have 
succeeded in obtaining good positions, but others have 
almost patrolled the country, sometimes a schoolmaster 
in a Boer's family, or the keeper of a small road-side 
store, seeking fortune as an inexperienced prospector, 
or even temporarily engaged as a waiter in an hotel ; but 
you still hear no grumbling, but relief expressed that 
they have at least escaped the restrictions on life at 
home, breathe fresh air, and have less worry. 

It certainly is a fact that no one seems to starve in the 
Transvaal ; and it is equally true that men whose 
circumstances after a long stay in the country have 
become hopeless, if not desperate, still describe it as the 
finest and most improving land on earth. Whether it 
is that the knowledge of increased age and long absence 
from home have made return impossible, owing to 
precariousness of the livelihood they might expect to 
find, or whether it is the more free and untrammeled life 
led in Boerland, and the easy way by which men still, by 
some means or another, subsist, however bad their 
pecuniary resources may be, are questions that may 
perhaps be both answered in the affirmative. It is 
usual at some hotels to let the needy speculators and 
adventurers live on as boarders till better times arrive ; 
and an acquaintance who once had a sleeping-share 
in an hotel told me that the consideration was not 
alway financially wrong. Whilst these indigent guests 
lived free, they advertised and recommended the hotel ; 
the food was not missed when a large number of visitors 
had to be provided for, and in the changing fortunes 
of the country these derelicts frequently became once 
more able to pay their arrears. My experience was 
that every man obtained his subsistence by some means, 
though his affairs were in the blackest condition ; even 
the " loafers " do not starve in South Africa. As I was 
told by an old trader who had traversed the country : 
No one starves, for if such a thing did occur, it could 



140 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

only mean that the victim was either " a very bad lot " 
or of a very sensitive disposition. In the one case help 
might be withheld ; in the other it is neither sought nor 
accepted. 

It would be difficult for even the most fanatic oppo- 
nent of Mr. Gladstone to imagine the deep, heartfelt, 
scornful detestation of his very name among many old 
British residents of this Republic. It is now but a 
decade since the Boer war a war largely brought about 
by the arrogance and lost by the imbecility of many 
to whom British interests were then confided. I 
constantly met men who had risked life, fortune, and 
every hope in the cause of their old country, and who 
in the darkest day were prepared to go on, who, badly 
led, repined not, badly defeated were yet not beaten, 
but who have never forgiven what they call the infamy 
of the Gladstone surrender. I have found old English 
settlers, who took part and were ruined in the war, 
reviling the very name of their country ; others who 
professing detestation of the Boers would yet help them 
so they say to fight against any renewed attempt at 
British supremacy ; and all this not partial, not isolated, 
but common talk, which every traveller may hear who 
cares to mix with the people and listen to their views. 
I found it useless to argue ; I had not the facts for 
defence. I recalled the old sugar-planting days of 
Malacca more than twenty years before, when my 
Scotch friends who managed the estates, and who were 
as a rule Tory and Jacobite to the bone, would angrily 
tell me they would travel twenty miles to see John 
Bright hanged. 

The Kafir represents the labouring class of the Trans- 
vaal. Wherever manual unskilled work is required it 
is the Kafir who supplies it. He is the bricklayer's 
labourer, the porter, the miner, the farm hand, the 
shepherd, the scavenger, and even the common police- 
man. He promenades Pretoria in the most wonderful 
attire, for in the large towns he is not allowed to indulge 
in his primitive costume. His greatest glory is in the 
possession of an old soldier's tunic numbers of which 



THE MEN OF PRETORIA. 



141 



are imported from England for the Kafir trade; his 
most economic suit is a sack, through the bottom of 
which be makes three holes for the insertion of his 
head and arms. In the towns he is not allowed to 




DATIVE POLICEMAN. 



walk upon the paths, but must keep to the roads, and 
he is also required to retire from the streets and public 
thoroughfares when the Kafir bell is rung about 9 P.M. 
Our black brother may be despised, but the manual 
labour of the Transvaal at present depends upon him, 
and his labour is cheap and easily trained. His average 
wage is ten shillings per week and his " mealie"( ground 



142 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

maize) ; he is a cheerful worker, very apt to learn, and 
after my experience of Coolie labour in the East I have 
a great respect for the Kafir. He is fairly industrious, 
cheerful, frugal, and saving, for he has only travelled 
down to the white man's mart in order that he may in 
a few months have sufficient money to return and enjoy 
himself in the Kafir paradise. He does not understand 
the white man, who is always working to make money 
and philosophically he is right; the European too 
often only looks upon him as a brute when, philoso- 
phically, he is wrong. The two are old relations, who 
parted ages ago from the ancestral progenitors and who 
now meet each other again with a different colour of 
the skin but the same bodily structure ; with a differen- 
tiation of ideas and development of brain, but with 
common animal instincts ; and the Kafir from his heart 
believes his white brother to be the rich relation. 

The Kafir relies principally upon meal for his food, 
but only too gladly partakes of meat when he can obtain 
it. On these occasions his culinary arrangements are 
best unseen. The head of a slaughtered ox is a great 
treat, so also is that of a sheep, which is cooked 
whole with wool, horns, and eyes included. As labourers 
they are distinctly clannish, and all my men once struck 
work because I proposed engaging some extra hands 
who belonged to a tribe who did not practice circum- 
cision, so strong a hold does this rite have upon their 
social intercourse. They spend little of the wage- 
money they earn in the towns where they labour, but 
carry most of it back to their kraals and locations, and 
it has recently been estimated by one well-informed 
burgher that at least half a million of gold coinage, in 
sovereigns and half-sovereigns, are annually taken away 
by them, and thus by implication a large sum is with- 
drawn from circulation. The greater part of this money, 
however, eventually passes into the hands of the exclu- 
sively Kafir traders, who reside in their principal neigh- 
bourhoods, and thus again returns to the commercial 
heart of the Transvaal. Most of the Kafirs who labour 
in Pretoria and Johannesburg come down from the 



THE MEN OF PRETORIA. 143 

Zoutpansberg district, and though I believe they would 
never be induced to fight for the Boers, they would still 
make excellent soldiers if properly trained, armed, and 
led by white officers. They could thus be led to storm 
a redoubt, though they would never prove material for 
forming Waterloo squares as targets for French cannon. 
The future development of the Transvaal depends 
greatly upon the Kafir, for in him centres the " labour 
question." Many undertakings already achieved would 
have been impossible had it not been for the cheapness 
with which unskilled labour could be obtained, and all 
calculations for large buildings or railway cuttings are 
greatly dependent on this factor, for the natural fea- 
tures of the wild country he has known so long will 
eventually be transformed by his hands. 

The drainage and sanitary arrangements of Pretoria, 
when I visited it, would have been a disgrace to a 
country village at home, but great difficulties have been 
overcome and improvements are being made. It was 
somewhat singular to be strongly advised by all medical 
men not to drink any water, even if mixed with alcohol, 
without the same had been first strongly boiled and then 
filtered, for the water supplied to the town in open 
sluits was the most dangerous disseminator of typhoid 
malaria, the real danger of Pretoria and Johannesburg. 
No Good Templar ever more longed for a glass of 
pure water than I frequently did myself in a land 
where the smallest bottle of English ale is charged two 
shillings, and this, again, the doctors advised us not 
to drink, or at least seldom. The Boer has long since 
become one of the greatest coffee-drinkers on the face 
of the earth, and has found there is nothing better to 
be taken on his long wagon journeys ; for those who 
use stimulants the coolest and mildest drink is a mix- 
ture of Cape hock and seltzer water ; for the spirit- 
drinker, whiskey diluted with water. A company, how- 
ever, has now supplied Pretoria with pure water, and 
drinking-fountains are erected in the town. There are. 
three dangers to health in the Transvaal which may 
easily be avoided want of cleanliness, intemperance, 



144 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

and the neglect of wearing warmer clothing after sunset, 
for weak lungs are liable to suffer from the sudden 
change of temperature that then ensues. But, on the 
other hand, the possessors of weak chests and mode- 
rately diseased lungs, to whom a European winter is a 
positive danger, may with a modicum of care live in 
physical ease and comfort breathing the glorious air of 
this high Transvaalian tableland. It was to the want 
of proper sanitary arrangements that the epidemic of 
1889-1890 was doubtless due. This took the form of 
typhoid fever, with a frequent complication of pneu- 
monia which attacked both lungs at the same time. 
Two judges, two doctors, and a large number of Euro- 
peans were quickly carried off, and the mortality was 
greater at Johannesburg than in Pretoria. At present 
the vital statistics are anything but satisfactory; the 
following figures, taken from a compilation made by 
Dr. Stroud, and published in the ' Press ' newspaper, 
refer to the precincts of Pretoria alone : 

1882 to 1887 1888. 1889. 1890. 

inclusive. 

Total deaths . . 162 123 169 171 

Of the 171 deaths which occurred during 1890, 71 
were men, 19 were women, and 81 were under 20 years 
of age. 

Of the men 23 died between the ages of 20 and 30 

23 30 40 

Of the women 6 20 30 

7 30 40 

Of the 81 who died under 20 years of age, 7 died 
between the ages of 2 and 20. The remaining 74 died 
before the age of 2 years. 

What the average of life amongst the Boer farmers 
may be I have no means of ascertaining, but I never 
saw many very aged individuals. 

In Pretoria, as in Johannesburg, one met the queerest 
of social characters, and they comprised the army of 
company promoters, prospectors, financial agents, mining 



THE MEN OF PRETORIA. 145 

experts, and members of the various professions which 
enable money to be made on the credit of auriferous 
quartz being found in sufficient quantity to enable the 
formation of a limited liability company. But all these 
good people had one story to tell they had all lost 
their money. Ask whom you would, converse anywhere 
with high and low alike, the knowing and unwary, the 
sharp and the dupe, all had lost and suffered at the 
collapse of the great bubble. The tale of the Johannes- 
burg boom was all one heard ; it was as though a mighty 
financial storm had raged and the shore was strewn 
with the bodies of these unhappy and disappointed 
speculators. It was a golden period, this era of the 
boom ; anything served to float a company, and the 
price of shares rose daily. On all sides men purchased 
scrip, or held the shares they obtained by the process of 
flotation. At length a fall took place, owners still held, 
thinking the check temporary and that recovery must 
take place ; but the collapse became sudden and severe 
and nothing could be saved of the fortunes so rapidly 
made they existed on paper, and as paper they now 
remain. Cautious workmen who had saved a few 
hundred pounds were drawn into the vortex and lost 
their little all. A young baker once travelled with 
me in a coach who had managed to acquire by his 
business in the Transvaal some 8000, with which he 
returned to England. The echo of the boom brought 
him once more to the Transvaal with his money, 
every penny of which he lost, and he was when I met 
him working as a journeyman baker once more. The 
most extraordinary story of the vicissitudes of fortune 
in the Transvaal that I ever heard, related to two 
worthies who possessed together about 200 in cash 
and a wagon and oxen. They arrived at a canteen 
many of which are a curse to the country and abso- 
lutely drank and gambled away the whole of their 
money ; they then sold the wagon and oxen for the 
same purpose and with a like result. They were soon 
penniless, and appealing to the keeper of the canteen 
where they had ruined themselves, induced that indivi- 

L 



146 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

dual to help them, which he did with the donation of a 
sovereign, a bottle of spirit, and a loaf of bread, with 
which they started on an aimless tramp. The first day 
they swallowed the contents of the bottle to prevent 
as described to me the trouble of carrying it, the 
sovereign was soon spent, and their condition rapidly 
became desperate. At this moment they actually 
walked over an undiscovered gold-bearing reef near one 
of the mining centres of the country. They repaired 
to that town with samples of the quartz, borrowed suffi- 
cient of a financial agent to purchase the claim and 
secure the ground ; a company was formed, and they 
returned home with 30,000 between them. I believe 
this story to be absolutely authentic. 

In a small community like Pretoria the competition 
for social distinction is naturally very observable, and 
many seem to travel some thousands of miles from 
home to plant the arrows of outrageous respectability in 
African soil. Amongst other peculiarities is the adoption 
of our high-crowned white hat, which is only worn by 
doctors and lawyers, and is almost considered the exclu- 
sive privilege of those two professions. Thus a hat 
that was once considered to denote a somewhat sporting 
character in England, now marks the climax of legal 
and medical respectability in Pretoria. The President 
also considers it incumbent to wear a high-crowned 
black hat, but the other inhabitants have practically 
discarded the abomination. 

I was much surprised to find so few well-kept gardens 
in a town which possessed so many Dutch inhabitants, 
and who might have been expected to have brought 
their flowering bulbs and love of gardening from 
their old country. I looked in vain for hyacinths or 
tulips, I scarcely ever saw a crocus, and never observed 
cultivated narcissi. These plants may possibly be found 
in the grounds of the richer inhabitants, but I certainly 
never found them in the gardens belonging to the 
houses of the more middle-class Dutch residents. The 
Hollander does not always carry his love of gardening 
to South Africa. The Briton is more apt to copy the 



THE MEN OF PRETORIA. 147 

old English home-scenes in the land of his adoption, 
and flowers spring up around his African home; his 
presence in the Transvaal is also denoted by the cricket- 
ground, and in the large towns by the race-course and 
grand stand, which seem to be inseparable signs of an 
English settlement in every part of the world I have 
visited. As time passes, and mutual antagonism and 
misunderstanding between Boer and Briton become 
more and more reduced, the British element in the 
Transvaal will be very considerable, and its descendants 
will form true colonials with little wish to return to 
their native land. Such men become good citizens, 
especially when they meet with a prosperity which was 
denied to them at home. 

I once met a thriving Scotchman in Natal who gave 
me the history of his career in the colony. Twenty- 
seven years previously he had left a northern Scottish 
town, where he supported a wife and two children on 
a weekly wage of nineteen shillings. As he related the 
tale, " there were forty of us where I was employed and 
I was the best of the lot, but nineteen shillings a week 
was the most I could get." After his regular labour 
he worked at another occupation from 7 to 11 in the 
evening, and thus increased his small income. But at 
last he struck, he felt it was neither just nor honest he 
should always work like a slave in the mere effort of 
sustaining life, and he came to Natal as a government 
emigrant. The first day of his arrival he looked about, 
the second he obtained work and earned a sovereign, 
which he took home and justifying himself said: " There, 
wife, in one day in this country as much as I could earn 
in a week in Scotland ! " Now he is a wealthy and 
prosperous man, and has been home for a trip to see 
the old land, where he cares not to live though he could 
now afford to do so. " No," as he remarked to me, " this 
is my country and my home ; Natal has been so kind to 
me, and Scotland so different and so hard." This is the 
true spirit of the colonist there is a gratitude and love 
for his adopted land, and a stern resolve to protect her 
interests even if jeopardized by the mismanagement of 

L2 



148 A NATURALIST IN TILE TRANSVAAL. 

the country that gave him birth. Each colony might 
have two representatives in the British parliament, to 
watch and explain purely colonial interests, whilst 
having the full privileges of ordinary members, and this 
could be made to in no way interfere with the present 
system of colonial government. 

"Whether these sturdy and life-long British colonists 
can be obtained for the Transvaal, to till its waste lands, 
increase its population, and develop its industries, or 
whether the Republic is still to be only a pastoral com- 
munity, dependent on its auriferous quartz for an influx 
of foreigners with an uncertainty of speculative revenue, 
is for the Boer and Hollander to decide. 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX. 



ENUMEBATION AND DESCRIPTION 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL AND ZOOLOGICAL OBJECTS 

COLLECTED BY THE AUTHOR 
WITH CONTRIBUTIONS BY 

ERNEST E. AUSTEN, Zool. Dept. Brit. Rev. H. S. GORHAM, F.Z.S. 

Mus. MARTIN JACOBY, F.E.S. 

G. A. BOULENGER, Zool. Dept. Brit. R. I. POCOCK, Zool. Dept. Brit. 

Mus., F.Z.S. Mus. 

JULES BOURGEOIS, M.E.Soc.Fr. H. DE SAUSSURE, Socius hon. Soc. 

J. H. DURRANT, F.E.S. ent. Lond. Rossic. Belg. &c. &c. 

C. J. GAHAN, M. A., Zool. Dept. Brit. Prof. C. STEWART, Pres.Linn.Soc. 

Mus. &c. &c. 

And the AUTHOR. 



THE following pages are devoted to an enumeration of the 
zoological objects collected by myself in the Transvaal, and I 
have not added the names of any species described or recorded 
by other naturalists or travellers as from that country. The 
intention has been to avoid any approach to compilation, which 
can only be useful when much more material has been acquired 
and greater work done in different parts of the Transvaal. The 
fauna is distinctly South African, and has but very few elements 
of that belonging to the Eastern Tropical Region, and fewer 
still of that appertaining to the Western Tropics a proof of 
which may be seen in the proportion of new species discovered, 
nearly all the others having previously been described from 
specimens collected much further south in the continent. 



152 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



When the locality Pretoria is used as a habitat for a species, 
the town itself is not necessarily designated, but the district in 
which the town is situated, and this bears a similar relation to 
what the county of Yorkshire does to the city of York. I have 
also included the species procured in Natal, but this locality 
is always distinguished by italics. It must also be distinctly 
understood that the localities given are not intended to convey 
the impression that the species are not found elsewhere in the 
Transvaal, but only that at those spots I made my captures. 

Many of the species have a very wide distribution, and I was 
surprised to meet with some old English friends, of which a 
list is added, though doubtless it could be considerably enlarged 
by further experience. 



Species found in England and also by the Author in 
the Transvaal. 



Mus rattus. 



MAMMALIA. 

Common Rat. 



Circus pygargus. 
Merops apiaster. 



AVES. 



Montagu's Harrier. 
European Bee-eater. 



COLEOPTERA. 



Philonthus varians. 
Dermestes vulpinus. 

Aphodius lividus. 
Corynetes rufipes. 

Corynetes ruficollis. 



Black Staphylinid. 
Destructive Beetle to hides 

and furs. 
Dung-Beetle. 
Beetle frequenting bones and 

horns. 
Beetle frequenting bones and 

horns. 



Exochomus niyromaculatus. " Ladybird " Beetle. 



APPENDIX. 



153 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



Pyrameis car dm. 
Acherontia atropos. 
Protoparce convolvuli. 
Deiopeia pulchella. 
Sterrha sacraria. 
Nomophila noctuella. 
Pyralis farinalis. 



" Painted-Lady Butterfly." 

" Death's-head Moth." 

" Convolvulus Hawk-Moth. J 

" Crimson-speckled Moth/' 

" Vestal Moth/' 

"PyralMoth." 

' Pyral Moth." 



Labidura riparia. 
Phyllodromia germanica. 
Ectobia ericetorum. 



ORTHOPTERA. 

Earwig. 

Cockroach. 

Cockroach. 



MAMMALIA. 



( 157 ) 



MAMMALIA. 

THE vast herds of ruminants that once gave the Mammalian 
fauna of the Transvaal such a distinctive feature have now passed 
away, owing to ruthless and unrelenting destruction on the part 
of man, and the Carnivora will soon share the same fate. The 
lion is almost if not entirely confined to Zoutpansberg, and 
is becoming scarcer every year, while a good leopard-skin is 
much more difficult to obtain than was the case a few years 
ago. I procured the perfect skin and skull of a very fine 
young male lion, which was purchased in the Pretoria Market, 
but as its exact locality is doubtful, I have not included it 
in my list; and the same silence has been maintained as to 
several other skins purchased, but which may have belonged to 
animals killed by hunting-parties beyond the confines of the 
Eepublic. I paid most attention to the smaller mammals found 
near the town. 

Excluding the valuable contribution of Prof. Stewart, the 
specimens have all been determined by Mr. Oldfield Thomas, 
and most of them I have placed in the collection of the British 
Museum. 

PRIMATES. 

ON SIX CRANIA, PROBABLY BELONGING TO THE MAKAPAN 
TRIBE, WATERBERG DISTRICT, TRANSVAAL, SOUTH AFRICA. 

BY 

C. STEWART, 

Hunterian Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology, and 

Conservator of the Museum of the Royal College of 

Surgeons ; President of the Linnean Society, &c. 

These six crania were obtained by Mr. W. L. Distant from 
the Makapan's Cave, in the Waterberg District, Transvaal, and 
have been kindly presented by him to the Royal College of 
Surgeons. 



158 A NAT UBALIST IN THE TRANS VAAL. 

Three of the crania are those of adults, and three from young 
persons, the probable ages of the latter being about 12, 13, and 
14 years. 

All the crania are of the true dolichocephalic type, are 
platyrhine, except the one numbered 1299 E, and mesognathous 
except 1299 F. 

The following gives the measurements of the crania and 
chief peculiarities. 

1299 A. Metopic (persistent mid-frontal suture), showing the 
outward bulging of the frontal region of the temporal 
fossa commonly present in this condition, also a shallow 
depression immediately posterior and parallel to the coronal 
suture. 

C 515. L 184. B 129. Bi 701. H 133. Hi 723. 
BN105. BA105. Ai 1000. Nh47. Nw25. Ni532. 
Ow37. Oh 34. Oi919. Cal445. 

1299 B. On both sides a deep fossa immediately below the 
inferior orbital foramen. Orbital height unusually great, 
viz. 38 mm. 

C 510. L 185. B 128. Bi 692. H 128. Hi 692. 
BN 98. BA 100. Ai 1020. Nh 52. Nw 28. Ni 538. 
Ow36. Oh 38. Oi 1056. Ca 1350. 

1299 C. 

C 504. L 182. B 121. Bi 665. H 129. Hi 179. 
BN 96. BA 95. Ai 990. Nh 43. Nw 26. Ni 605. 
Ow 37. Oh 32. Oi 865. Ca 1275. 

1299 D. Aged about 14 years. 

C 492. L 178. B 128. Bi 719. H 128. Hi 719. 
BN 95. BA 94. Ai 989. Nh 38. Nw 22. Ni 579. 
Ow 38. Oh 30. Oi 789. Ca 1305. 

1299 E. Aged about 13 years. Mesorhine. Distance between 
outer borders of orbits small, viz. 85 mm. 

C 500. L 181. B 131. Bi 724. H 128. Hi 707. 
BN 90. BA 91. Ai 1011. Nh 45. Nw 22. Ni 489. 
Ow 34. Oh 31. Oi 912. Ca 1530. 



MAMM ALIA. 



159 



1299 P. Aged about 12 years. Orthognathous. 

C 485. L 175. B 127. Bi 726. H 126. Hi 720. 
BN 92. BA 87. Ai 946. Nh 36. Nw 22. Ni 611. 
Ow 36. Oh 30. Oi 833. Ca 1340. 

Average indices of the three adult crania : 

Breadth index (Bi) 686. 
Height (Hi) 708. 
Alveolar (Ai) 1003. 
Nasal (Ni) 558. 
Orbital (Oi) 948. 



CARNIVORA. 
Cynictis penicillata, Cuv. Meer-Kat. 



Pretoria. 



INSECTIVORA. 

Crocidura martensii, Dobs. Large Shrew. Pretoria. 

Crocidura pilosa, Dobs. Smaller Shrew. Pretoria. 

RODENTIA. 

Myoxus murinus, Desm. Dormouse. Pretoria. 

Musrattus, Linn. Rat. Pretoria. 

Mm concha, A. Smith. Mouse. Pretoria. 

Mus (Isomys) pumilio, Sparrm. Striped Mouse. Pretoria. 

Pedetes capensis, Linn. " Spriag Haas." Pretoria. 



ARTIODACTYLA. 

Pelea capreolas, Thunb. Vaal Rehbok. 

Nanotragus scoparius, Schr. " Oribi." 

Cephalolophus grimmii, Linn. Duyker. 

Cervicapra arundinum, Bodd. Rietbok, 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Spelonken, 

Zoutpans- 

berg. 
Pretoria. 



A V E S. 



( 1C3 ) 



AVES. 

I DID not succeed in finding an undescribed bird in the dis- 
trict of Pretoria, nor did I much expect to do so. The bare 
plains of the high veld support no rich avifauna, -whilst the 
neighbouring districts of Lydenburg, Potchefstroom, the road 
to the Limpopo and the banks of that river had already been 
worked by those excellent field-ornithologists, Mr. Thomas 
Ayres * and Mr. F. A. Barratt f. Moreover, the high lands 
of Natal around Newcastle, which form part of the same 
area as that which comprises the Southern Transvaal, have been 
visited by Majors E. A. Butler and H. W. Eeilden and Capt. 
S. G. ReidJ. 

Immediately around Pretoria the Accipitres are always en 
evidence. The Common Vulture, Gyps kolbii, as scavenger, 
continuously patrols the air, and settles in flocks as the carcass 
of some dead ox is sighted (see ante, pp. 69, 70) . The Rufous 
Buzzard (Buteo desertorum) is a terror to the poultry-breeders 
around the town, and next to the Vulture is the most abundant 
in this order of birds. Montagu's Harrier (Circus py gar gus] is 
not at all uncommon, but does not venture, as a rule, within a 
few miles of the town, and is difficult of approach. The Jackal 
Buzzard (Buteo jakal) is also very scarce in the district; I only 
procured it myself among the wooded lowlands of Zout- 
pansberg. My greatest acquisition was a specimen of Wahl- 
berg's Eagle (Aquila wahlbergi], obtained a very few miles 
outside the town of Pretoria, a spot where the Black-shouldered 
Kite (Elanus caruleus] could be generally seen flying or 
hovering high in the air, and seldom in reach of the gun. 
Several species of Kestrels were very abundant, usually fre- 

* ' Ibis,' 1869, 1871, 1873, 1876-80. 

t ' Ibis,' 1876. 

J ' Zoologist,' 1882. 

if 2 



164 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

quenting rocky ground. The favourite food of Cerchneis 
tinnunculoides appears to be orthopterous insects, and Orthoptera 
and Coleoptera were found in the stomach of Falco ruficollis. 
For some facts relating to the Secretary-bird (Serpentarius 
secretarius) see ante, p. 68. 

Some species very common in the wooded districts of Water- 
berg and Zoutpansberg are occasionally seen in the district of 
Pretoria, such as the Grey Plantain- eater (Schizorhis concolor) 
and the Yellow-billed Hornbill (Lophoceros leucomelas) , 
examples of both of which were observed and obtained. 
Another bird not at all rare around Pretoria is the Golden 
Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx cupreus) ; in the stomach of one I found 
small Coleoptera, in that of another specimen small Orthoptera. 
Peters' Glossy Starling (Lamprocolius sycobius) and the Cape 
Glossy Starling (Amydrus morio) are very abundant in wooded 
rocky spots, and give a colour to the scene ; while after the 
rains the Common Spreos (Spreo bicolor) assemble inflocks upon 
the veld, and devour the small Orthoptera there existing in 
great plenty. 

Wherever wet places and high reeds are found, the Long- 
tailed Widow-bird (Chera progne) may usually be observed 
pursuing its laborious and difficult flight, heavily handicapped 
by its seasonally- developed tail, and is a good instance where 
sexual selection is exercised at the expense of protection. 

Among the tamest of birds may be mentioned the Cape Long- 
claw (Macronyx capensis), which can frequently be killed when 
driving by a slash of the whip wielded by an expert Kafir, as a 
specimen in my collection was thus obtained. But this bird is 
not usually found around the outskirts of the town, as is that 
most friendly of visitors, the Cape Wagtail (Motacilla capensis) , 
many of which fall a prey to small Dutch boys armed with that 
hideous instrument, the " catapult." 

I give a list * of my captures, which may be taken to give a 
fair, but not exhaustive, estimate of the birds to be obtained 
around the capital of the Transvaal ; and in preparing the same 
I must express my warmest thanks to Dr. K. Bowdler Sharpe, 

* I have arranged this list according to the method pursued in Layard 
and Sharpe's ' Birds of South Africa.' 



AVES. 



165 



who examined and identified the Accipitres, and to Capt. G. E. 
Shelley, who kindly went through and named the rest of the 
collection, excepting a few species identified by Mr. H. E. 
Dresser. 



Order 



Gyps kolbii, Daud. 



Serpentarius secretarius, 

Scop. 

Circus pygargus, Linn. 
Asturpolyzonoides, Smith. 

Buteo jakal, Daud. 
Buteo desertorum, Daud. 

Aquila wahlbergi, Sundev. 
Milvus cegyptius, Gm. 
Elanus caeruleus, Desf. 

Pernis apivurus, Linn. 
Falco ruficollis, Swains. 

Cerchneis rupicola, Daud. 

Cerchneis rupicoloides , 

Smith. 
Cerchneis tinnunculoides, 

Temm. 
Cerchneis amurensis, 

Radde. 
Glaucidium perlatum, 

Vieill. 
Asio cupensis, Smith. 

Strix flammea, Linn. 



ACCIPITRES. 

S.- African Griffon Pretoria. 

Vulture. 
Secretary-bird. Pretoria. 



Montagu's Harrier. 
Many - banded 

Goshawk. 
Jackal Buzzard. 

llufous Buzzard 
(3 vars.). 

Wahlberg's Eagle. 

Yellow- billed Kite. 

Black-shouldered 
Kite. 

European Pern. 

African Rufous- 
necked Falcon. 

South - African 
Kestrel. 

Large African 
Kestrel. 

Lesser Kestrel. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 

Spelonken, 
Zoutpansberg. 
Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Eastern Red- Pretoria. 

footed Kestrel. 
African Pearl- Pretoria. 

spotted Owlet. 
African Short- Pretoria. 

eared Owl. 
Barn-Owl. Pretoria. 



166 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



Order PICARLE. 

Merops apiaster, Linn. European Bee- 
eater. 
Melittophagus meridio- Little Bee-eater. 

nalis, Sharpe. 
Coracias caudata, V. 



Lophoceros leucomelas 

(Licht.). 
Upupa africana, Bechst. 



Lilac - breasted 

Holler. 
Yellow - billed 

Hornbill. 
South-African 

Hoopoe. 

Schizorhis concolor, Smith. Grey Plantain- 
eater. 
Chrysococcyx cupreus Golden Cuckoo. 

(Bodd.). 
Trachyphonus cafer, Less. Levaillant's 

Barbet. 

Dendropicus cardinalis Cardinal Wood- 
(Gm.). pecker. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 

Spelonken, 

Zoutpansberg. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria, Zout- 
pansberg. 
Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Order PASSERES. 



Turdus litsitsirupa, Smith. 

Pycnonotus layardi, 

Gurney. 
Monticolabrevipes, Strickl. 

& Scl. 

Cossypha caffra (Linn.) . 
Myrmecocichlaformicwora, 

Vieill. 
Saocicola monticola, Vieill. 

Saxicolafamiliaris, Steph. 
Saxicola pileata (Gm.). 
Pratincola torquata 
(Linn.) . 



South-African Spelonken, 

Thrush. Zoutpansberg. 

Bulbul. Pretoria. 



Short - footed 
Rock-Thrush. 

Cape Chat-Thrush, 

Southern Ant- 
eating Wheatear. 

Mountain Wheat- 
ear. 

Familiar Chat. 

Capped Wheatear. 

S. -African Stone- 
Chat. 



Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



AVES. 



167 



Nectarinia famosa, Linn. 

Zosterops virens, Bp. 
Parus afer, Gm. 

Hirundo semirufa, Sundev. 
Hirundo cucullata, Bodd. 

Lanius collaris, Linn. 
Lanius collurio, Linn. 

Urolestes melanoleucus , 

Jard. & Selby. 
Laniarius gutturalis (P. L. 

S. Miill.). 
Laniarius atrococcineus 

(Burch.). 
Telephonus senegalus 

(Linn.). 

Nilaus brubru (Lath.). 

Brady ornis silens (Shaw). 
Heterocorax capensis 

(Liclit.) . 
Corvus scapulatus, Daud. 

Lamprocolius sycobius, 

Hartl. 

Spreo bicolor (Gm.). 
Amydrus morio (Linn.). 

Sitagra caffra (Licht.). 
Hijphantornis velatus, Vieill 

Plocepasser mahali, Smith. 



Malachite Sun- 


Pretoria. 


bird. 




Green White-eye. 
South-African 


Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 


Titmouse. 




Red - breasted 


Pretoria. 


Swallow. 




Larger Stripe - 
breasted Swallow 


Pretoria. 


Fiskal Shrike. 


Pretoria. 


Red - backed 


Pretoria. 


Shrike. 




S. -African Long- 
tailed Shrike. 


Pretoria. 


Bacbakiri Bush- 


Pretoria. 


Shrike. 




Crimson-breasted 


Pretoria. 


Bush-Shrike. 




Common Red- 


Pretoria. 


winged Bush- 
Shrike. 




Brubru Bush- 


Pretoria. 


Shrike. 




PiedWood-Shrike. 


Pretoria. 


African Rook. 


Pretoria. 


White - bellied 


Pretoria. 


Crow. 




Peters' Glossy 
Starling. 
Common Spreo. 
Cape Glossy 
Starling. 
Weaver-bird. 


Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 


1. Black - fronted 


Pretoria. 


Weaver-bird. 




White -browed 


Pretoria. 


Weaver-bird. 





168 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



Vidua principalis (Linn.). 
Vidua ardens (Bodd.). 
Chera progne (Bodd.). 

Pyromelana oryx (Linn.). 
Estrelda astrild (Linn.). 
Passer arcuatus, Gm. 
Poliospiza tristriata, Riipp. 

Alaemon nivosa, Swains. 
Tephrocorys cinerea (Gm.). 

Macronyx capensis (Linn.) . 
Motacilla capensis, Linn. 



Common Widow- 


Pretoria. 


bird. 




Red-collared 


Pretoria. 


Widow-bird. 




Long-tailed 
Widow-bird. 


Pretoria. 


Red Bishop-bird. 
CommonWaxbill. 


Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 


Cape Sparrow. 
Three - streaked 


Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 


Grosbeak. 




Cape Lark. 
Rufous-capped 
Lark. 


Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 


Cape Long-claw. 
Cape Wagtail. 


Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Order COLUMB^E. 

Columba phaonota, Gray. South- African Pretoria. 

Speckled Pigeon. 
Turtur senegalensis (Linn.) . Senegal Turtle- Pretoria. 

Dove. 
Pterocles gutturalis, Smith. Yellow-throated Pretoria. 

Sand- Grouse. 



Order 

Pternistes swainsoni 

(Smith). 
Francolinus levaillantii, 

Temm. 
Francolinus gariepensis, 

Smith. 
Francolinus subtorquatus , 

Smith. 



GALLING. 

Swainson's Fran- 
colin. 

Levaillant's 
Francolin. 

Orange River 
Francolin. 

Coqui Fran- 
colin. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 

Spelonken, 
Zoutpansberg. 

Pretoria and 

Spelonken, 
Zoutpansberg. 



AVES. 169 

Order GERANOMORPILE. 

Anthropoides paradisea Blue Crane. Pretoria. 

(Linht.) . 
Otis kori, Burch. Kori Bustard or Pretoria. 

" Gom Paauw." 

Otis caerulescens, Vieill. Blue Bustard. Pretoria. 

Otis afroides, Smith. White-quilled Pretoria. 

Bustard. 

Order LIMICOL^. 

(Edicnemus capensis, South- African Pretoria and 

Licht. Thick- knee. Zoutpansberg. 

Glareola melanoptera, Black - winged Pretoria. 

Nordm. Pratincole. 

Cursorius senegalensis, Senegal Courser. Pretoria. 

Licht. 

Cursorius chalcopterus, Bronze-winged Pretoria. 

Temm. Courser. 

/Egialitis tricollaris Treble- collared Pretoria. 

(Vieill.). Sand-Plover. 

^Effialitis asiaticus (Pall.). Asiatic Dotterel. Pretoria. 

Chettusia coronata (Temm.). Crowned Lap- Pretoria. 

wing. 

Machetes pugnax (Linn.). Ruff. Pretoria. 

Order HERODIONES. 

Bubulcus ibis (Linn.). Buff-backed Pretoria. 

Egret. 
Scopus umbretta, Gm. " Hammerkop." Pretoria. 

Order ANSERES. 

Plectropterus gambensis Spur-winged Pretoria. 

(Linn.). Goose. 

Order PYGOPODES. 
Podiceps capensis, Bp. Little Grebe. Pretoria. 



REPTILIA 



AND 



BATRACHIA. 



173 ) 



EEPTILIA AND BATRACHIA. 

APART from the Python, of which I only heard accounts, the 
largest reptile I met in the Transvaal was the Monitor ( Vara- 
nus niloticus), which was not uncommon on the banks of the 
spruits (see ante, p. 87). Another very common Lizard was 
Agama hispida, of which I have found four or five under a 
single stone ; it runs about the bare veld and is easily caught. 
The most interesting species is Mabuia trivittata, which in- 
habits holes in banks in company with Toads, and, as already 
described, basks in the sun at the entrance to its hole, with its 
legs arranged close by the side of its body, which is curled up 
like a Snake, which the Lizard then much resembles (ante, p. 87) . 
The Puff- Adder (Vipera arietans] I only found twice, and, 
strange to say, the two specimens were met with, at an interval 
of a fortnight, on exactly the same spot in a pathway at the foot 
of a cliff ; on each occasion I nearly trod upon the reptile, which 
was basking in the dust under the midday sun. In walking 
through the high grass of the warm lowlands of Zoutpansberg 
one is frequently warned to be careful of Snakes ; but in these 
excursions I only saw one individual, which was about six feet 
long, and sought refuge amidst some large blocks of quartzite 
before I could obtain a shot at it. 

As the warm rainy season advances the silence of the veld 
(wherever accumulations of water are found) is broken by the 
croakings of Batrachians, and the hoarse bellow of the huge 
Rana adspersa makes the night hideous to those who live in 
the vicinity of the haunts of this handsome frog. 

I have placed my small collection among the treasures in the 
British Museum, and that excellent authority, Mr. G. A. 
Boulenger, has contributed the following enumeration and 
notes, and described a new species of Snake which I found 
near Pretoria. 



174 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

REPTILTA AND BATEACHIA. 

BY G. A. BOULENGER, F.Z.S. &c. 

REPTILIA. 
LACERTILTA. 

Agama hispida, L. Pretoria. 

In the adult females the ear-opening is a little larger than 
the eye-opening, and the head is blackish, all over or on the 
sides only. One of the males shows a vermilion stripe along 
each side of the belly, from axilla to groin, and scattered spots 
of the same colour on the sides of the body and above the 
shoulder. All the specimens have a yellowish vertebral stripe. 

Agama atricollis, Smith. Pretoria. 

Zonurus cordylus, L. Pretoria. 

Varanus niloticus. Pretoria. 

Nucras tessellata, Smith. Pretoria. 

A single young specimen. Black above, Avith three white 
lines along the back, and two series of round white spots along 

the sides j sides of head with black and white vertical bars ; 
tail coralline red. 

Eremias lineo-ocellata, D. & B. Pretoria. 

Gerrhosaurus flavigularis, Wiegm. Pretoria. 

Mubuia trivittata, Cuv. Pretoria, 
32 or 34 scales round the middle of the body. 

Mabuia striata, Ptrs. Pretoria. 

The single specimen has 40 scales round the middle of the 
body, and is therefore referable to Peters's M. wahlbergii, 
which I now regard as not separable from M. striata. 

Chamaleonparvilobus, Blgr. Pretoria. 



REPT1LIA AND BATRACH1A. 1V5 

OPHIDIA. 



Glaucoma distantly sp. n. 






Glauconia distanti. 

Snout rounded, projecting beyond the mouth, slightly 
hooked, the preoral portion concave inferiorly ; supraocular 
present ; rostral shield very large, extending posteriorly far 
beyond the level of the eyes, its upper portion nearly as broad 
as long, and covering almost the entire upper surface of the 
snout and crown ; nasal completely divided into two, the lower 
part very small ; ocular bordering the lip, between two labials, 
the anterior of which is very small ; five lower labials. 14 scales 
round the body. Diameter of body 65 times in the total 
length, length of tail 12 times. Uniform blackish, the borders 
of the scales lighter. 

A single specimen 130 millim. long. Pretoria. 



176 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



In %s hooked snoui this species approaches G. macrorhynchus, 
Jan (Nubia), and G. rostrata, Bocage (Benguela and Angola). 
It differs from the former in its less slender form and larger 
rostral shield ; from the latter in its rounded rostral edge and 
shorter tail. 

Lamprophis rufuhis, Licht. Pretoria. 

Leptodira rufescens, Gm. Pretoria. 

Psammophis sibilans, L. Pretoria. 

Causus rhombeatus, Licht. Pretoria. 

Vipera arietans, L. Pretoria. 



BATRACHIA. 

Rana natalensis, Smith x . Pretoria. 

Rana adspersa, Bibr. Pretoria. 

Bottle-gn^b above, yelhm beneath ; base and inner surface 
of limbs orange. 

Rana angolensis, Bocage. Pretoria. 

Phrynobatrachus natalensis, Smith. Pretoria. 

JBw/p regularis, Reuss. Pretoria. 

Bufo carens, Smith. Pretoria. 

The lateral glandular fold and the larger glands on the sides 

of the body and 5n the limbs bright red. Tympanum much 
smaller in the young than in the adult. 



ARACHNIDA 



AND 



MYRIOPODA 



( 179 ) 



ARACHNIDA AND KEYBIOPODA. 

ALL the species of Acari which I found several of which 
remain unidentified were taken during the dry season under 
stones. At this time few animals frequent the dried and parched 
veld, and it is probable that these parasites then hibernate. 

Solpuga chelicornis, despite its formidable appearance, is 
attacked by small birds. I once witnessed the Solpuga trying 
to escape from the persistent attacks of a bird which appeared 
to be the Cape Wagtail (Motacilla capensis), and I eventually 
secured the pursued specimen. 

The new species Nephila transvaalica, Pocock, is abundant 
during the rainy season in the wood-bush. It lives in small 
colonies in gigantic webs (ante, p. 91). 

The large Myriopod, Spirostreptus transvaalicus, a new species 
now described by Mr. Pocock, is very rare. I obtained two 
specimens at Pretoria, and no one to whom I showed them had 
ever seen such a large species before. 



ARACHNIDA. 

BY R. INNES POCOCK, Zool. Dept., Brit. Mus. 

The following is a list of the Arachnida obtained by 
Mr. Distant in the Transvaal. 

ACARI. 

Of this order several examples of the family Ixodidse were 
discovered under stones. To only one of these, however, namely 
Amblyomma hebraum of Koch, I am able to assign a name. 
The rest appear to be referable to the same genus Amblyomma. 

SOLPUGA. 
Solpuga chelicornis, Licht. & Herbst. Pretoria. 

N2 



180 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

ARANE^. 
Fam. SPARASSID.E. 
Ocypete megacephala, C. Koch. Pretoria. 

I provisionally only refer this species to C. Koch's old genus 
Ocypete. It does not appear to fall within the limits of any of 
the genera characterized by Mons. Simon in his paper on this 
family. 



Fam. 
Gastracantha, sp. Pretoria. 

Argiope nigrovittata, Thorell. Pretoria. 

A widely distributed S. -African species. 

Nephila transvaalica, sp. n. (Tab. V. fig. 4.) Pretoria. 

Cephalothorax black, clothed with silver- white hairs ; palpi 
flavous, with the apical segment fuscous ; first two pairs of legs 
with coxae, femora, and patellae black ; tibiae adorned with four 
alternating bands, two flavous, two black, the proximal extre- 
mity being black, the distal flavous ; tarso-metatarsus black, 
with only its proximal end narrowly flavo-annulate ; third and 
fourth pairs of legs mostly black, the proximal three-fourths of 
the femur, however, flavous ; maxillae and labium black, the 
inner border of the maxilla and the apex of the labium flavous ; 
mandibles black ; sternum flavous, except for a very fine black 
marginal line ; abdomen with a lateral band of silver hairs and 
marked above with five transverse flavous bands. 

Cephalothorax furnished with two conspicuous tubercles ; its 
lateral margins smooth. 

Sternum cordate, strongly narrowed posteriorly, with a low 
tubercle at the base of the labium and at the base of each of 
the two anterior pairs of legs ; also a minute tubercle on each 
side of the posterior extremity of the sternum. 

Legs : femora of the first two pairs aciculate ; tibias of these 
same legs with a tuft of hairs on the black band ; tibia of the 
fourth pair covered with long hairs throughout; the tarso- 
metatarsus of the fourth pair hairy at the proximal end. 



ARACHNID A AND MYRIOPODA. 181 

Measurement in millimetres. Length of cephalothorax 9, 
width 6, width of cephalic portion 5 ; length of abdomen 12, 
width 8'5 ; length of anterior leg 46, of posterior leg 37. 

Two dried female examples. 

This species is closely related to N. annulata of Thorell ; 
but of this last-named form I have only seen a very brief 
description. (R. L P.) 



MYRIOPODA. 

BY R. INNES POCOCK, Zool. Dept, Brit. Mus. 

DIPLOPODA. 

Fam. GLOMERiD.fi. 

Spharotherium obtusum, C. Koch. Durban, NataL 

Fam. IULIDJS. 
Spirostreptus meinerti, Porath. Pretoria. 

Spirostreptus meinerti, Porath, (Efv.Vet.-Akad. Forhand. 1872, no. 5, p. 37. 

This species was described originally from Caffraria. Mr. 
Distant obtained a single female specimen. 

Spirostreptus transvaalicus, sp. n. Pretoria. 

<J . Colour : head piceous, labral region obscurely ferrugi- 
nous ; antennae fuscous ; legs deep ochraceous ; somites polished 
black behind, pale anteriorly. Head smooth above, with a feeble 
vertical sulcus, strongly rugose with striae and punctures below; 
with 6 or 7 punctures above the angular labral excision. 
Antennae slender, longer than the head by the apical segment ; 
the second segment the longest, the third, fourth, and fifth 
subequal in length. Eyes nearly twice as wide as long, nar- 
rowed internally, and separated by a space which is a little 
greater than a diameter, composed of about 80 ocelli arranged 
in about 13 vertically oblique series. The process on the 
mandible subacute. 

The first tergite smooth above, the lateral portion marked 
with two complete and several short grooves; other grooves 



182 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



following the curvature of the anterior angle, the posterior 
angle of the lateral portion rounded and obtuse, the anterior 
angle strongly produced forwards into an apically rounded 
process, the lower margin of which is slightly convex, and the 




Spirostreptus transvaalicus. 



upper, which is continuous with the anterior margin of the 
tergite, concave. The rest of the somites with their posterior 
portion entirely smooth and polished above, finely punctulate at 
the hinder end of the body, longitudinally striatc below, the 
anterior portion finely striate transversely. Sternal areas nearly 
smooth ; ventral grooves short. The pores, a little below the 
middle of the side, minute, and at the hinder end of the body 
almost invisible. Anal somite small ; the tergite mesially 
angled above, scarcely covering the upper angle of the valves, 
marked at the base of the angle by a shallow punctulate con- 
striction ; valves convex, with their margins very lightly com- 
pressed and punctulate ; sternite triangular. 

Legs with the fourth and fifth segments padded beneath, the 
first and second hairy above at their distal extremities, the 
distal segment with a single large spine above the claw, smaller 
spines on each side of the claw and two irregular series of 



ARACHNID A AND MYRIOPODA. 183 

spines along the lower surface. The copulatory feet with the 
anterior piece narrowed below, marked by two deep grooves 
separated by a keel, terminating inferiorly in a smooth rounded 
prominence, the posterior piece terminating below in a pro- 
minence which is somewhat similar, but pointed below. The 
appendage consists of two pieces, a shorter, straight, simple 
pointed style, and a long curved flagellum, which is expanded 
mesially, pointed and simple at the end, but which gives off a 
short, simple, slender, curved process at the distal end of the 
expanded part of its length. 

Number of somites 70. 

Length about 200 millim. (about 8 English inches). 

Two male specimens were obtained. 

This handsome species is very closely allied to Sp. heros of 
Porath from Caffraria. The two, however, appear to differ 
slightly, at least in colour, and Sp. heros, according to the 
description, bears no secondary process on the flagellum of the 
appendage of the copulatory feet. (R. L P.) 

Spirostreptus (Odontopyge) pretoria, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Colour : head fuscous above, ferruginous beneath the line of 
the antennae ; antenna M'ith the first, second, third, and fourth 
segments ferruginous, the fifth fuscous distally, the sixth wholly 
fuscous ; the first tergite deep slate-grey, with its anterior and 
posterior margins flavous; the rest of the somites with the 
posterior border widely flavous ; the middle part of the somite 
slate-grey, laterally fading above and below into a paler ferru- 
ginous grey ; anal somite wholly fuscous ; legs ferruginous. 

Head almost smooth above, finely punctulate, with a feeble 
sulcus, rugose and punctured on the labral region. Eyes 
widely separated, triangular, each consisting of about 50 ocelli. 
First tergite almost entirely smooth, the lateral portion sub- 
rectangular, with an anterior marginal sulcus and a second 
sulcus running from above the anterior angle to the posterior 
angle. The rest of the somites marked with a complete and 
strong transverse sulcus, the area behind this sulcus weakly 
longitudinally sulcate below ; the whole of the upper surface 
very finely and closely rugulose, being marked with minute 



184 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

abbreviated, irregular, longitudinal striolae. The pores con- 
spicuous, in the middle of the hinder half of the somites, half- 
way up the side. Anal somite closely punctulate and reticu- 
lated throughout, the caudal process compressed ; the valves 
convex, not compressed, but with a strong marginal sulcus. 
The teeth at the summit of the valves nearly erect, spiniform, 
almost in the same line as the posterior margin of the valves. 
The fine fringe along the hinder margin of the tergites perfectly 
even. 

Number of somites 63. 

Length about 45 millim. (R. I. P.) 



INSECTA. 



( 187 ) 

INSECTA. 

COLEOPTERA. 
GEODEPHAGA. 

SOUTH AFRICA is well represented by this Tribe of Coleoptera, 
and the Transvaal is no exception to the rule. The genus 
Manticora, so restricted to this region, I only found iti one 
species around Pretoria. It is very local, appears shortly after 
the first rains, and is very numerous indeed on the restricted 
areas it frequents, where it actively forages about the bare veld. 
It is, however, found only for a few weeks, at least such was 
my experience. Dromica is a scarce genus, and the only 
species met with, D. gigantea, was seen in solitary examples 
at scattered intervals during the wet season. Polyhirma maci- 
lenta is very common on the paths and roadways of the open 
veld ; but Cypholoba ranzanii is a much rarer species, and I 
only took it in Zoutpansberg. The two most common species 
of the genus Anthia are A. thoracica and A. maxillosa, but 
there are nothing like the number of species in the Transvaal 
as can be found in other parts of Southern Africa. Atracto- 
notus formicarius is found under stones on the hardest and 
driest part of the veld, whilst under stones in damp places I 
found the rare Callistomimus sexpustulatus, Crepidogaster bima- 
culatus, and Chltenius vitticollis. But the streams in the 
summer are so violent, and the stones on the banks so fre- 
quently overturned and washed from their places, that it is 
very difficult to find the homes of these small Carabidae. 

For the identification of many of the species of Carabidae I 
am indebted to that high authority Mr. H. W. Bates. 



Fam. ClCINDELID^E. 

Manticora tuberculata, De Geer. Pretoria. 

Dromica gigantea, Breme. Pretoria. 



188 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



Fam. CARABID.E. 

Acanthogenius dorsalis, King. Pretoria. 

Trianogenius corpulentus, Chaud. Pretoria. 

Pheropsophus litigiosus, Dej. Pretoria. 

Pheropsophus fastigiatus, Linn. Pretoria. 

Brachinus armiger, Dej. Pretoria. 

Crepidog aster bimaculatus, Boh. Pretoria. 

Calleida angustata, Dej. Pretoria. 

Hystrichopus coffer, Illig. Pretoria. 

Lebia, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Tetragonoderus bilunatus, Klug. Pretoria. 

Graphipterus cordiger, Dej. Pretoria. 

Graphipterus westwoodi, Breme. Pretoria. 

Graphipterus ovatus, Pering. Pretoria. 

Anthia thoracica, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Anthia maxillosa, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Anthia mellyi, Breme. Pretoria. 

Anthia (squilatera, Kl. Pretoria. 

Anthia desertorum, Thorn. Pretoria. 

Anthia, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Piezia angusticollis, Boh. Pretoria. 

Cypholoba ranzanii, Bertol. Zoutpansberg. 

Polyhirma macilenta, Oliv. Pretoria. 

Atractonotusformicarius, Erichs. Pretoria. 

Scarites rugosus, Wied. Pretoria. 

Clivina grandis, Dej. Pretoria. 

Clivina, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Chleenius subsulcatus, Dej . Pretoria. 

Chlanius cylindricollis, Dej. Pretoria. 

Chltenius vitticollis, Boh. Pretoria. 

Callistomimus sexpustulatus, Boh. Pretoria. 

Harpalus capicola, Dej. Pretoria. 

Harpalus, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Hypolithus, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Abacetus obtusus, Boh. Pretoria. 

Euleptus caffer, Boh. Pretoria. 

Megalonychus interstitialis, Boh. Pretoria. 



INSECT A. 189 



Fam. 

Aulonogyrus abdominalis, Reg. (see ante, Pretoria. 

p. 45). 

Fam. HYDROPHILID^E. 
Hydrous, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Fam. STAPHYLINID.E. 

Of the very few species of this family that were collected, the 
most interesting is Philonthus varians, a wide-ranging beetle 
found in England. For the identifications I am indebted to 
Dr. D. Sharp, who has special knowledge of the family. 

Philonthus punctipennis, Woll. Pretoria. 

Philonthus varians, Payk. Pretoria. 

Philonthus, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Staphylinus hottentottus, Nordm. Pretoria. 

Fam. PAUSSID^. 
Pentaplatarthrus natalensis, Westw. Pretoria. 

Fam. SiLPHiDjE. 

I have enumerated the following species under the names they 
bear in the collection of the British Museum. Silpha pernix, 
Burch., appears to be a MS. name ; I have seen the type speci- 
men, but am quite unable to trace the description. 

Silpha pernix, Burchell, MS.? Pretoria. 

Silpha capensis, Dej. Pretoria. 

Fam. HISTERID.B. 

I found very few members of this family around Pretoria, 
though I am informed that 213 species are already recorded 
from South Africa. Though the habits of the Histeridse are 
stercoraceous, I found several species under stones on the bare 
veld during the dry season. 



190 A NATURALIST IN TIIE TRANSVAAL. 

My friend Mr. George Lewis, who has made the Histeridze 
his special study, has identified the specimens here enumerated. 

Hister coffer, Erichs. Pretoria. 

Hister fossor, Erichs. Pretoria. 

Hister holtentotta, Erichs. Pretoria. 

Hister ovatula, Mars. Pretoria. 

Saprinus gabonensis, Mars. Pretoria. 

Saprinus natalensis, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Fam. DEKMESTID^E. 

The universally distributed Dermestes vulpinus was found in 
great abundance at Pretoria. 

Dermestes vulpinus, Fabr. Pretoria. 

^Ethriostoma gloriosa, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Attagenus, sp. ? Zoutpansberg. 



Fam. COPHID.E. 

The habits of the Copridae are so uniform in character that 
little can be added to what has already been written on the 
subject. They are mostly strong fliers, perhaps in length of 
flight unequalled by any other Trans vaalian Coleoptera, and 
this particularly applies to the genera Scarabaus, Sebasteos, and 
Gymnoplturus. The giant Heliocopris is scarce and fond of 
elevated situations. The commonest species is Oniticellus 
militaris, which may be found in almost every deposit of dung. 

For the correct identification of several species I am much in- 
debted to the assistance of Mr. C. O. Waterhouse, of the British 
Museum ; and I should not have ventured to describe the new 
species of Bolboceras, but for the help of my friend Mr. H. W. 
Bates. 

Scarabaus convexus, Hausm. Pretoria. 

Scarabceus savignyi, McLeay. Pretoria. 

Scarabceus nigruceneus, Boh. Pretoria. 

Scarabceus hottentottus, McLeay. Pretoria. 

Scarabceus bohemani, Harold. Pretoria. 



INSECTA. 



191 



Scarab ceus interstitialis, Boh. Pretoria. 

Sebasteos galenus, Westw. Pretoria. 

Gymnopleurus wahlbergi, Fahr. Pretoria. 

Gymnopleurus ccelatus, Wied. Pretoria. 

Gymnopleurus, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Coptorhina klugii, Hope. Pretoria. 

Heliocopris hamadryas, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Catharsius, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Copris fidius, Oliv. Pretoria. 

Copris contractus, Boh. Pretoria. 

Onitis caffer, Boh. Pretoria. 

Onitis, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Phalops flavocinctus, Klug. Pretoria. 

Onthophagus gazella, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Onthophagus, spp. ? Pretoria. 

Oniticellus militaris, Castelu. Pretoria. 

Aphodius lividus, Oliv. Pretoria. 

ApJiodius, spp. ? Pretoria. 

Hybosorus orator, Illig. Pretoria. 

Bolboceras batesii, sp. n. Pretoria. 

7Vo#, sp. ? Pretoria. 
Description. 

Bolboceras batesii, sp. n. (Tab. I. fig. 5.) 

Castaneous ; antennae ochraceous. Clypeus almost black, very 
thickly and coarsely punctate, with a short dentiform promi- 
nence or tubercle at the centre of the anterior margin, a 
similar tubercle on each lateral margin at its narrowing angle, 
arid two tubercles side by side, on the middle of the forehead ; 
posterior margin of the head narrowly ochraceous. Thorax 
moderately thickly punctate, with four obscure and obtuse 
bosses on its anterior slope, its posterior angles strongly 
rounded and prominent. Scutellum thickly and somewhat 
finely punctate, its margins narrowly blackish. Elytra longitu- 
dinally striate, the striations roughly punctate ; median suture 
and extreme outer margin somewhat blackish. Legs beneath 
and margins of body strongly and ochraceously hirsute, with a 
prominent tuft at base of antennae. 
Long. 13 millim., lat. 9. 



192 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Distinguished by the short dentiform prominence at centre 
of front margin of clypeus, and by the two tubercles to the 
forehead. (W. L. D.) 

Fam. MELOLONTHID.E. 

A considerable number of the flower-visiting species of this 
family are found in the Transvaal, but in nothing like the 
number in which they abound in more Southern Africa. 
Species of the genera Eriesthis, Pachycnema, Monochelus, and 
Dichelus are found on the few scattered flowers that bloom on 
the veld, and Eriesthis semihirta is certainly the most abundant 
and common species. 

The smaller species of the family are still so little worked 
out that I can only make a small enumeration of those that 
have been described. 

Eriesthis semihirta, Burm. Pretoria. 

Eriesthis guttata, Burm. Pretoria. 

Pachycnema tibialis, Oliv. Pretoria. 

Monochelus, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Dichelus vulpinus, Burm. Pretoria. 

Serica, spp. ? Pretoria. 

Trochalus, sp. ? Waterberg. 

Schizonycha, sp. ? Pretoria. 



Fam. RUTELID.E. 

To the difficult species of this family the same remark 
applies as to the Melolonthidse they are little worked out. 
I found, as I did in Malacca, that many species come to light, 
and are almost only found in that way. The peculiar habits of 
two species of Adoretus have already been described (ante, 
p. 47). 

Popillia bipunctata, Fabr. Durban, Natal. 

Adoretus luteipes, Casteln. Pretoria. 

Adoretus, sp. ? Pretoria. 



IN SECT A. 193 

Fam. DYNASTID^E. 

I did not meet with many of this family in the Transvaal. 
Oryctes boas was very abundant in old tan, and in its larval 
condition is, I have little doubt, eaten by the Wagtail (Mota- 
cilla capensis), as numbers of these birds were always searching 
the material which contained the larvae. 

Heteronychus, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Oryctes boas, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Cyphonistes vallatus, Wied. Pretoria. 

Syrichthus verus, Burm. Pretoria. 



Fam. CETONIID.E. 

I paid considerable attention to the collection of these beetles, 
for they appeared with the flowers, and as plants and trees 
successively blossomed, so new species of Cetoniidse were found 
upon the bloom. Often the time of the appearance of the 
insect was as limited as the duration of the flower. Anoplo- 
chilus tomentosus is found on the open veld, buried in the 
bloom of a dicotyledonous plant somewhat resembling our own 
Dandelion. The blooms of Asclepiads (Gomphocarpi) are 
visited by Melinesthes umbonata, species of Oxythyrea (includ- 
ing the widely distributed Oxythyrea cinctella), Coptomia um- 
brosa, and Tephrcea morosa. Diplognatha silicea is of very 
strong flight and I only secured it on the wing, and in the 
same manner I took the rare Ischnostoma nasuta. The two 
commonest species are Plcesiorrhina plana and Pachnodaflavi- 
ventris; both are found nearly throughout the whole of the 
summer, and their depredations on apples in the Natal Colony 
have already been described (ante, p. 126). 

I have to thank Mr. Oliver Janson for assisting me in the 
identification of some species of this family. 

Hypselogenia concava, Gory & Perch. Pretoria. 

Diceros algoensis, Westw. Pretoria. 

vsn.flavipennis, Westw. Pretoria. 

Ischnostoma nasuta, Schauni. Pretoria. 

Pl&siorr hina plana, Wied. Pretoria* 



194 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



Anisorhina flavomaculata, Fabr., 

var. egregia, Boh. 

Melinesthes umbonata, Gory & Perch. 
Coptomia umbrosa, Gory & Perch. 

Elaphinis irrorata, Fabr. 
Elaphinis latecostata, Boh. 
Gametis balteata, De Geer. 
Anoplochilus lomentosus, Gory & Perch. 
Oxythyrea amabilis, Schaum. 
Oxythyrea perroudi, Schaum. 
Oxythyrea cinctella, Schaum. 
Oxythyrea rubra, Gory & Perch. 
Oxythyrea hcemorrhoidalis, Fabr. 
Oxythyrea aeneicollis, Schaum. 
Oxythyrea marginalis, Swartz. 
Tephrcea morosa, Schaum. 
Trichostetha placida, Boh. 
Aplasta dicliroa, Schaum. 
Cetonia cincta, De Geer. 

Pachnoda flaviventris, Gory & Perch. 
Pachnoda hucomelana, Gory & Perch. 
Rhabdotis aulica, Oliv. 
Rhabdotis sobrina, Gory & Perch. 
Rhabdotis semipunctata, Fabr. 
Diplognatha silicea, McLeay. 
Diplognatha hebrcea, Oliv. 
Macroma cognata, Schaum. 
Ptychophorus leucostictus, Schaum. 
Spilophorus plagosus, )Soh. 
Hoplostomus fuligineus, Oliv. 

Notes. 

Diceros flavipennis, Westw., is certainly only a varietal form 
of D. algoensis, Westw. The species is very local, only found 
on the leaves of one particular shrub with an insignificant 
bloom, and both forms occur together. 



Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 
Pretoria and 

Durban, Natal. 
Durban, Natal. 
Durban, Natal. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria, 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Durban, Natal. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria and 
Charles town, Natal. 
Pretoria and Natal. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Durban, Natal. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



INSECT A. 195 

Oxythyrea hamorrhoidalis, Fabr. 

A variety is very common around Pretoria in which the 
ground-colour of the elytra is shining bluish, and not green ; 
a scarcer variety is found in which the colour is rosy red. 
Rhabdotis aulica, Oliv. 

I took a variety of this species in which the upper surface is 
rosy red, not green. 

SERRICORNIA. 

Both Buprestidae and Elateridse are very scarce at Pretoria, 
the bare plains being apparently uncongenial habitats for the 
group. Still the largest and handsomest species of the Trans- 
vaal Buprestidse (Sternocera orissa, var.) is found on the few 
scattered Acacias which are thinly distributed on the veld, as 
before described (ante, p. 91). 

Elateridse are probably much more numerous, and the few 
species here enumerated give little idea of this Coleopterous 
family as found even on the high veld. 

My best thanks are due to Dr. Caudeze, of Liege, for his 
determination of these obscure Elaters. 



Fam. 

Sternocera orissa, Buq., var. litu- . Waterberg and 

rata, White. Pretoria. 

Ambly sterna vittipennis, Boh. Zoutspansberg. 

Scaptelytra sulphureovittata, Fahr. Durban, Natal. 

Psiloptera gregaria, Fahr. Pretoria. 

Psiloptera viridimarginata, Fahr. Zoutpansberg. 

Psiloptera calamitosa, Fahr. Zoutpansberg. 

Chalcogenia cuprea, Lap. & Gory. Pretoria. 

Melybaus crassus, Lap. & Gory. Pretoria. 

Fam. ELATERIDSE. 

Aliteus adspersus, Herbst. Pretoria. 

Psephus puncticollis, Boh. Pretoria. 

Heteroderes inscriptus, Erich. Pretoria. 

Cardiophorus pr&morsus, Boh. Pretoria. 

Pleonomus wahlbergi, Cand. Pretoria. 

o2 



196 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

MALACODEBMATA. 
Fam. LYCID.E. 

These singular beetles are found in considerable profusion 
in the few small -wooded spots to be met with around Pretoria. 
They are often seen in great quantity on the leaves of shrubby 
trees, and by their sluggish habits and bright coloration seem 
to fear few enemies, an idea accentuated by the fact that they 
are sometimes mimicked by other beetles, such as the Longicorn 
Amphidesmus analis. 

I was able to secure twelve species of the genus Lycus, and 
in their identification have had much valuable assistance from 
Mons. Bourgeois, of Alsace, who has specially studied the 
Malacodermata, and has here described a new species. 
Lycus dilatatus, Dej. Pretoria. 

Lycus subtrabeatus, Bourg. Pretoria and Durban, Natal. 

Lycus bremei, Guer. Durban, Natal. 

Lycus rostratus, Linn. Pretoria. 

Lycus (Bolus, Murray. Pretoria. 

Lycus constrictus, Boh. Pretoria. 

Lycus pyrif or mis, Murray. Pretoria. 

Lycus ampliatus, Fahr. Pretoria. 

Lycus zonatus, Fahr. Pretoria, Zoutpansberg, and 

Durban, Natal. 

Lycus integripennis, Bourg. Pretoria. 

Lycus distanti, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Lycus kolbei, Bourg. Pretoria. 

Description. 

Lycus distanti, sp. n. (Tab. I. fig. 3.) 
Lycus (Chlamydolycus) distanti, Bourg. 

. A L. elevato, Guer.-Men., cujus vicinus, rostro paullo 
breviore, elytrorum expansione latiore, magis rotundata, 
elytris ipsis apiceni versus magis attenuatis costisque primis 
et secundis elevatis, bene distinctis prsecipue differt. 

Subcordatus, glaber, nitidiusculus, supra ochraceus, thoracis 
disco plaga triangulari apicem haud attingente, elytrorum 
regione scutellari trienteque apicali nigris; subtus niger, 
nitidior, trochanteribus femorumque stirpe sicut et abdomine 



INSECT A. 197 

(medio excepto) ochraceis ; prothorace leviter transverse, 
subquadrato, antice late rotundato, lateribus fere parallelis, 
disco longitudinaliter canaliculate, anticis posticis rectis, 
baud productis ; elytris ante medium in expansionem magnam 
concolorem, supra concavatam et valde reflexam, infra autem 
convexans et declivem rotundato-ampliatis, dein apicem 
versus attenuatis ibique singulatim rotundatis, irregulariter 
punctato-reticulatis, costis 2 elevatis, bene distinctis, apice 
abbreviatis ornatis ; abdominis segmento penultimo integro, 
ultimo elongato-triangulari, bivalvato, forcipe apicem versus 
attenuate ibique leviter curvato, simplici. 

Long. 13 mill. ; lat. thorac. 3 mill.; lat. max. elytr. 11 mill. 

? . Hucusque invisa. 

Hanc speciem insignem Dom. W. L. Distant, qui earn detexit, 
dicare gaudeo. (/. Bourgeois.) 

For notes relating to the few beetles belonging to the two 
following families, Lampyridse and Melyridee, I am indebted to 
the Rev. H. S. Gorham. 



Fam. LAMPYRIDJS. 

Luciola capensis, Oliv. Ent. ii. no. 28, p. 21 (Lampyris) . Pretoria. 
A Luciola with the thorax, metasternum, scutellum, coxae, 
and femora yellow, the disk of the thorax with a large pitchy 
black mark narrowly divided by the yellow carina and a central 
spot. The elytra are leaden black with the suture brownish. 
I have seen this insect named as above, but I doubt if it is the 
L. capensis of Fabricius or of Olivier. A single male. 

(H. S. Gorham.) 

Fam. MELYRID.E. 
HedyUus amcenus, sp. n. (Tab. I. fig. 2.) 

Leete flavus, capitis basi, thoracis macula parva, antice excisa, 
abdominis apice tarsisque posticis nigris ; antennarum arti- 
culis sexultimis nigro-notatis,' elytris et metasterno cseruleis. 
Long. 5 millim. Pretoria. 

Two specimens. A species to be distinguished in its genus 
by the single black thoracic spot, which, however, looks rather 
like two oblong spots united, and by the colour of its legs and 
antennae, among other points. (H. S. Gorham.) 



198 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Anthocomus ? sp. ? Pretoria. 

One example of a very small Melyrid beetle pertains, I think, 
to this genus. 

Fam. CLERID*:. 

In this family two species of Corynetes are recorded, both well 
known in Britain ; they were found among accumulations of 
horns. 

Corynetes rufipes, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Corynetes ruficollis, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Colotes, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Fam. BOSTRYCHID^E. 
Sinoxylon conigerum, Gerst. Pretoria. 

HETEROMERA. 

I fully expected to find many more species of this group 
than I did near Pretoria, though the number of individuals 
was in an inverse ratio to the number of species. Most are 
naturally found on the scanty herbage of the veld, but some, as 
Eletica rufa and Zonitis eborina, frequent the leaves of Ascle- 
piads. Mylabris ophthalmica throughout the summer is common 
on the rose-bloom of the hedges, and, as I have previously re- 
marked, Mylabris transversalis is very injurious to the cultivated 
roses of Natal. Dichtha cubica is probably a mountain species; 
I certainly only found it in a barren rocky mountain pass : 
whilst Psammodes striatus is common everywhere and doubtless 
falls a prey to the large Geodephaga ; in the dry season the 
empty body-cases of the Psammodes are found strewn over the 
plains. 

I have been able to determine these species by comparison 
with the fine collection of Mr. Fred. Bates, now contained in 
the British Museum ; and I have also to thank Mr. Champion 
for his assistance. I describe one species of which I can find 
no record. Some species of the obscure genera Strongylium, 
Lagria, Nemognatha, and Trigonopus I have not ventured to 
identify. 



INSECTA. 



199 



Fam. TENEBRIONIDJS. 



Zophosis angusticostis, Deyr. 
Zophosis punctulata, Oliv. 
Himatismus buprestoides, Gerst. 
Machla porcella, Fahr. 
Psammodes pierreti, Amyot. 
Psammodes striatus, Fabr. 
Psammodes scabriusculus, Haag. 
Dichtha cubica, Guer. 
Amiantus ffibbosus, Fabr. 
Amiantus undosus, sp. n. 
Trachynotus angulatus, Fahr. 
Trachynotus, sp. ? 
Trigonopus, sp. ? 
Anomalipes variolosus, Sol. 
Anomalipes intermedius, Dej. 
Anomalipes talpa, Fabr. 
Anomalipes complanatus, F. Bates. 
Micranterus validus, Bob. 
Strongylium, sp. ? 
Lagrittj sp. ? 

Mylabris ophthalmica, Dej. 
Mylabris transversalis, Mars. 
Mylabris lunata, Pall. 

Mylabris mixta, Mars. 



Mylabris capensis, Linn. 
Mylabris tristigma, Gerst. 
Mylabris grondali, Billb. 
.E/e/z'ca rw/, Fabr. 
Zonitis eborina, Fabr. 
Nemognatha, sp.? 

Description. 
Amiantus undosus, sp. n. (Tab. I. fig. 1.) 

Black; legs dark fuscous. Pronotum small, subglobular, 
strongly and reticulately rugose ; head with the front rugose, but 
much more finely so than the pronotum ; antennae dark fuscous, 



Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Durban, Natal. 

Pretoria. 

Zoutpansberg. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Richmond Road, Natal. 

Zoutpansberg, Water- 
berg, Pretoria. 

Pretoria and Durban, 
Natal. 

Pretoria. 

Richmond Road, Natal. 

Durban, Natal. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 



200 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

blackish towards the base. Abdomen above subovate, slightly 
gibbous, strongly depressed posteriorly ; lateral margins of the 
elytra convex; surface of the elytra covered with strong, waved, 
undulating rugosities and coarsely punctate, but not quite 
extending to their apices. Sternum very coarsely punctate and 
subrugulose ; abdomen beneath glabrous, shining black, some- 
what coarsely punctate. 

Long. 12 millim. Pretoria. 

Allied to A. undatus, Haag., but differing by the distinct 
pattern and sculpturing of the elytra. (W. L. D.} 

Fam. CURCULIONID.E. 

The most distinctive South-African genus of this family is 
Brachycerus, which in this region, at least, finds its head- 
quarters. In and around Pretoria I found the species usually 
terrestrial, sometimes under stones, and frequently wandering 
among broken pieces of quartzite on hill- sides. The habits 
of Polyclaeis equestris and cinereis have already been referred 
to (ante, pp. 54-5). The weevils of the Old World are still 
so unworked by competent coleopterists that I have been 
unable to identify many species, but Mr. F. P. Pascoe has aided 
me considerably. 

Proscephaladeres punctifrons, Boh. Durban, Natal. 

Proscephaladeres obesus, Boh. Durban, Natal. 

Polyclaeis equestris, Boh. Pretoria. 

Polyclaeis cinereis, Boh. Pretoria. 

Brachycerus apterus, Linn. Pretoria. 

Brachycerus cancellatus, Gylh. Pretoria. 

Brachycerus natalensis, Thm. Pretoria. 

Brachycerus, spp. ? Pretoria. 

Hipporhinus pilularius, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Hipporhinus cornutus, Boh. Pretoria. 

Hipporhinus corniculatus, Thm. Pretoria. 

Hipporhinus, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Cleonus, spp.? Pretoria. 

Lixus, spp. ? Pretoria. 

Alcides senex, Sahib., var. Pretoria. 

Acanthorrhinus dregei, Gylh. Pretoria. 

Sphenophorus, sp. ? Pretoria. 



INSECTA. 201 

LONGICORNIA. 

The absence of woods and forests on the " high veld/' which 
may almost be said to compose the district of Pretoria, renders 
the number of longicorn beetles to be found but few in number 
and not particularly striking in size or appearance. Some I 
only met with in most unlikely places, such as Compsomera 
elegantissima in the billiard-room of the hotel at which I 
boarded, and Taurotagus klugii seen but once, and then on 
some wooden packing-cases in the town of Pretoria. Anubis 
mellyi swarms on the flowers (principally on Scabiosa, sp.) 
growing on the open veld, and Promeces viridis is also common 
on the same scanty flora. One of the most interesting species 
is Amphidesmus analis, which is generally found on leaves, 
where the females wonderfully resemble representatives of the 
genus Lycus ; the long antennae of the male render the 
deception less complete. The most showy species of the fauna, 
Philagathes l&tus, is very abundant at the commencement of 
the summer in gardens, but is only on the wing for a short time. 

Although I only found twenty-four species, three have 
proved to be undescribed, and my best thanks are due to Mr. C. 
J. Gahan, of the British Museum, without whose aid I should 
not have ventured to diagnose the new species. 

Fam. PEIONID.E. 
Tithoes confinis, Castel. Pretoria. 

Fam. CERAMBYCID^E. 

Xystrocera globosa, Oliv. Pretoria. 

Taurotagus klugii, Lacord. Pretoria. 

Compsomera elegantissima, White. Pretoria. 

Phyllocnema latipes, De Geer. Pretoria. 

Anubis mellyi, White. Pretoria. 

Lit opus dispar, Thorns. Pretoria. 

Promeces viridis, Pasc. Waterberg and Pretoria. 

Euporus callichromoides, Pasc. Durban, Natal. 

Paroeme gahani, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Clytanthus capensis, Lap. & Gory. Pretoria. 

Amphidesmus analis, Oliv. Pretoria. 

Philagathes Icetus, Thorns. Pretoria. 



202 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Fam. LAMIID^E. 

Tragocephala sulphurata, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Ceroplesis bicincta, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Ceroplesis capensis, Linn., var. n. Pretoria. 

Ceroplesis brachyptera, Thorns. Zoutpansberg, Waterberg, 

and Pretoria. 

Phryneta spinator, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Rhaphidopsis zonaria. Durban, Natal. 

Tragiscoschema amabilis, Perr. Durban, Natal. 

Crossotus klugii, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Tetradia fasciatocollis , Thorns. Pretoria. 

Hecyrida terrea, Bertol. Pretoria. 

Moroegamus globiceps, Har. Pretoria. 

Notes and Descriptions. 
Paroeme gahani, sp. n. (Tab. I. fig. 7.) 

Body brownish testaceous ; eyes black ; legs ochraceous, the 
apex of anterior femora, the apical halves of intermediate and 
posterior femora, apices of tibiae, and apices of tarsal joints dark 
castaneous ; apex of basal joint of antennae broadly blackish, 
apices of second, third, fourth, and fifth joints narrowing, slightly 
darker. The basal joint of the antennae is coarsely punctate 
above and abruptly truncate at apex ; pronotum subnodulose 
and very sparingly pilose ; the elytra are thickly and coarsely 
punctate. 

Long. 15 millim. (W. L. D.) 

Tragocephala sulphurata, sp. n. (Tab. I. fig. 9.) 

Body sulphureous. Antennae black. Head with a transverse 
fascia between antennal bases ; eyes and a large triangular spot 
at their base black ; pronotum with two slightly waved longi- 
tudinal fascia?, fused and meeting on anterior margin, and apices 
of lateral tubercles black ; margins of scutellum and elytral 
sutures, the last obliterated a little beyond centre and at apex, 
black ; elytra ornamented with variable black spots (in some 
specimens being fasciate). Tarsi brownish beneath. 

Long. 18 millim. 



1NSECTA. 203 

This species is closely allied to T. variegata, Bertol., but is 
much smaller in size and paler in hue. I found it on the open 
veld amongst dwarf flowering plants. (W. L. D.} 

Ceroplesis capensis, Linn., var. n. 

Cerambyx capensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. xii. p. 628 (1767). 

In this variety the red markings are almost entirely oblite- 
rated and the colour uniformly blackish brown. 

Crossotus klugii, sp. n. (Tab. I. fig. 8.) 
Crossotus sexpunctata, Klug, MS. Dej. Cat. ed. iii. p. 370. 

Greyish brown mottled with darker coloration and darkly and 
coarsely punctate. Antennse finely pilose above, strongly hirsute 
beneath, dark brownish, the joints (excluding basal) greyish at 
their bases. Head with the front pale, marked by some dark 
brown punctures, a black line behind base of antennse and a black 
basal fascia; eyes black. Pronotum with some coarse, dark, 
scattered punctures, a distinct fuscous transverse fascia near 
anterior margin ; four well-developed discal tubercles, with two 
central subobsolete ones between them, and two on each lateral 
margin, the posterior ones much the longest. Scutellum 
brownish grey, with a broad, central, blackish fascia. Elytra 
thickly, darkly, and very coarsely punctate, with three black 
tubercles on each side in longitudinal series, the anterior 
smallest ; the central suture margined with small obscure 
greyish spots. Body beneath and legs somewhat paler in hue, 
coarsely punctured with brown; apices of the tibise and the 
tarsi brown. 

Long. 12 to 14 millim. 

Allied to C. albicollis, Gue"r., from West Africa, but the an- 
tennse much less hairy. 

I found this species on the stems of acacia trees, to which 
their colour-markings gave them great protective resemblance. 

(W.L.D.} 

EUPODA. 

In the immediate vicinity of Pretoria scrubby woods are 
scarce, and consequently the numbers of Eupoda to be found 



204 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



are very limited. On the bare plains the Asclepiads attract 
many, especially such as Euryope terminalis and Corynodes 
compressicornis. Under stones in the dry season I have found 
Aulacophora vinula. Representatives of the Cryptocephalidse 
were always obtained by beating trees. Chrysomela opulenta is 
a very common species. 

I have to offer my best thanks to the following specialists : 
Mr. Martin Jacoby for assistance in the Chrysomelidse, and 
Mr. C. J. Gahan in the Galerucidse, both of whom have here 
described species ; whilst Mr. O. Janson has compared my 
Cassididse with the fine collection of the late Mr. Baly, which is 
now in his possession. 



Fam. CRIOCERID^E. 



Crioceris puncticollis, Lac. 
Crioceris constricticollis, Clark. 



Durban, Natal. 
Durban, Natal. 



CRYPTOCEPHALID.3E. 

Gynandrophthalma anisogramma, Lac., var. Pretoria. 

Clythra wahlbergi, Lac. Pretoria. 

Camptolenes cribraria, Lac. Pretoria. 

Antipus rufus, De Geer. Durban, Natal. 

Cryptocephalus pustulatus, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Cryptocephalus dregei, Boh. Pretoria. 

Cryptocephalus decemnotatus, Suffr. Pretoria. 

Cryptocephalus pardalis, Suffr. Pretoria. 

Halitonoma epistomata, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Achcenops facialis, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Description. 
Achanops facialis, sp. n. (Tab. I. fig. 4.) 

Below black; head black at the vertex, the lower part 
fulvous, deeply excavated ; thorax fulvous, transverse, closely 
and finely punctured ; elytra flavous, punctate-striate ; the in- 
terstices finely punctured ; the shoulders with a black spot ; 
tibiae fulvous at the base. 

Length 1| line. 



INSECTA. 205 

Of cylindrical shape; the head broad and flat, the vertex 
black, closely and strongly punctured; the eyes very widely 
separated, but slightly emarginate; the lower portion of the 
face fulvous, very deeply excavated, the excavation bounded at 
the sides by a sharp edge ; antennae short, black, the lower five 
joints fulvous, the terminal joints gradually widened ; thorax 
about twice as broad as long, subcylindrical, the lateral margins 
straight at the base, rounded in front, the surface very closely 
punctured, fulvous, the extreme basal margin black ; scutellum. 
black, its apex truncate ; elytra cylindrical, flavous, the extreme 
basal margin and a spot at the shoulder black, the disk dis- 
tinctly punctate-striate ; the interstices very finely punctured 
and here and there transversely wrinkled ; pygidium piceous, 
strongly punctured ; underside and the femora black ; the coxae, 
base of the femora and that of the tibiae fulvous ; prosternum 
with a triangular tooth at the middle of the basal margin, 
fulvous. 

A single specimen, differing from the other known species by 
the different coloration and the very deep facial excavation. 

(M. Jacoby.} 

Fam. EUMOLPID.S;. 

Colasposoma pubescens, Lefevre. Pretoria. 

Euryope terminalis, Baly. Pretoria. 

Calomorpha wahlbergi, Stal. Durban, Natal. 

Pseudocolaspis sericata, Marsh. Pretoria. 

Corynodes compressicornis, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Menius distanti, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Description. 
Menius distanti, sp. n. (Tab. I. fig. 6.) 

Piceous; the basal and apical joints of the antennae and the 
legs fulvous ; head and thorax not very closely and strongly 
punctured ; elytra dark or pale fulvous, regularly and strongly 
punctate-striate. 

Length 1^ line. 

Head strongly punctured, the vertex piceous, deeply sulcate 
above the eyes, the lower portion fulvous ; antennae only ex- 



206 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

tending to the base of the elytra, fulvous, the eighth and ninth 
joints piceous, the second joint slightly longer and thicker than 
the third ; thorax more than twice as broad as long, widened 
at the middle, the sides rounded, the surface deeply but not very 
closely punctured, leaving a smooth central longitudinal space; 
elytra slightly depressed below the base, rather lighter in colour 
than the thorax, deeply and regularly punctate- striate, the in- 
terstices impunctate but convex at the sides, the shoulders 
prominent : underside piceous ; legs fulvous ; prosternum longer 
than broad, slightly narrowed between the coxse. 

The two specimens obtained differ slightly in the colour of 
the elytra, which, are much paler in one than in the other; the 
species is allied to M. chalceatus, Lefevre, but differs in the 
more strongly punctured thorax, the flat interstices of the elytra 
(the sides excepted), and in the fulvous legs. (M. Jacoby.} 

Fam. CHKYSOMELID^E. 

Chrysomela opulenta, Reiche. Pretoria. 

Polysticta clarkii, Baly. Pretoria; Durban, Natal. 

Podontia nigrotessellata, Baly. Pretoria. 

Fam. GALERUCJD^E. 

Aulacophora vinula, Erichs. Pretoria. 

Hyperacantha oculata, Karsch. Pretoria. 

Asbecesta cyanipennis, Harold. Zoutpansberg. 

Spharoderma indica, Fabr. Pretoria. 

jfEnidea pretoria, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Monolepta flaveola, Gerst. Durban, Natal. 

Spilocephalus viridipennis, Jac. Pretoria. 

Ootheca modesta, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Notes and Descriptions. 
(By C. J. GAHAN, M.A., F.E.S.) 

Ootheca modesta, sp. n. (Tab. I. fig. 11.) 

Testaceous ; underside of body (abdomen and sides of pro- 
thorax excepted), legs, and scutellum black. Sides of prothorax 



INSECTA. 207 

slightly diverging from the base up to the anterior third, thence 
converging to the apex ; pronotum convex, minutely and rather 
thickly punctured, its greatest width about twice the median 
length. Elytra minutely and very closely punctured. Ab- 
domen fuscous-testaceous. Underside of body and legs thinly 
clothed with short grey hairs. Antennae a little longer than 
half the body, the third joint about equal to the fifth, the fourth 
slightly longer, the sixth and following joints subequal or 
scarcely perceptibly diminishing in length, each shorter than the 
fifth each of the joints from the third to the tenth slightly 
thickened towards the apex. 

Epipleures of elytra moderately broad in front, gradually 
narrowed posteriorly, and entirely disappearing just beyond the 
middle. Tibiae unarmed. First joint of posterior tarsi equal 
in length to the two succeeding joints united. Anterior coty- 
loid cavities closed in behind. 

Long. 5| millim. 

This species is smaller than 0. mutabilis, Sahib. (Peric. Entom. 
Species Insect. (1823) p. 64, pi. 3. figs. 8-10), the prothorax is 
less rounded at the sides and the whole insect less ovate in 
form ; but it agrees with that species in having short elytral 
epipleures, closed anterior cotyloid cavities, appendiculate claws. 

So that, on the whole (considering 0. mutabilis, Sahib., as 
the type of the genus), the present species seems best placed in 
Ootheca. 

Chapuis, in his characterization of this genus (' Genera des 
Coleopteres/ xi. p. 173), has stated that the anterior cotyloid 
cavities are open behind. But this statement cannot be 
accepted as correct, unless Chapuis was mistaken in his identi- 
fication of Crioceris mutabilis, Sahib., the species which he 
names as the type of his genus. (C. J. G.) 

Spilocephalus viridipennis, Jacoby. (Tab. I. fig. 12.) 
SpilocepJialus viridipennis, Jacoby, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 202, 



Mr. Distant has taken one male specimen which I refer with 
some doubt to this species. This specimen not only differs 
from the type by certain well-marked characters which I con- 



208 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

sider to be sexual, but disagrees also iu some minor details with 
Mr. Jacoby's description ; so that it may possibly represent a 
distinct species. The sides of the prothorax slightly diverge 
from the base up to about the anterior third, and thence 
converge to the apex; the disk of the prothorax is almost 
impunctate; the greatest width of the thorax is rather less than 
twice the length. The punctuation of the elytra is arranged in 
double rows, the intervals between each pair of rows forming 
slightly raised longitudinal lines, which are more distinct on the 
disk. 

The antennae of the male are almost as long as the body ; the 
hind tibiae of the same sex are each furnished with a long 
slender spur, which arises on the inner side at about the 
beginning of the distal fourth, and passing alongside the tibia, 
terminates just beyond it in a little spine. The apex of the 
last ventral segment of the male has a slight notch or incision 
on each side, a short median lobe being thus formed. 

In other respects (the characters here given excepted) Mr. 
Distant^ specimen agrees with Jacoby's description. 

The remarkable tibial spur, which, like the tibiae, is provided 
with short grey hairs, except on the terminal spine, is possessed 
also by the males oiXenarthra ? calcarata, Gerstaeck., Xenarthra 
bipunctata, Allard (Ann. Ent. Belg. 1889, p. cxiv), and a species* 
from the Transvaal hitherto undescribed, which I name in honour 
of my distinguished friend. These three species, though differ- 
ing from the male described above by the greater length of the 

* Spilocephalus distanti, sp. n. 

c? . Head, legs, and antennae fulvous, the latter slightly infuscate towards 
the apex. Prothorax, elytra, and underside of body metallic green. Head 
deeply excavated in front, with a median process passing upwards from the 
epistome ; vertex transversely impressed between the eyes, and with a short 
triangular lobe, impressed longitudinally, projecting between the antennae. 
Prothorax with its sides gradually diverging from the base almost up to the 
apex, its anterior width about twice the median length ; the disk dull, with 
a faint, median, longitudinal, impressed line, and with two shallow depres- 
sionsone on each side near the base. Elytra rather strongly and very 
closely punctured, subnitid. Antennae a third longer than the body. Hind 
tibiae each with a long slender spur. 

Hob. Transvaal. (Brit. Mus. Collection.) (C. J. G.) 



1NSECTA. 209 

antennae (a third, at least, longer than the body) and by the 
excavation of the front of the head, will probably have to rank 
in the ame genus. 

jEnidea ? pretoria, sp. n. (Tab. I. fig. 10.) 

Fulvo-testaceous ; head above, scutellum, body underneath, 
and coxae black; last four or six joints of the antennae fuscous. 
Face rather short, lower margin of clypeus transversely raised ; 
vertex impressed transversely between the eyes, and longitu- 
dinally between the antennae. Sides of prothorax slightly 
diverging from the base to the anterior third, thence converg- 
ing ; pronotum nitid and impunctate, with a transverse depres- 
sion j ust behind the middle. Elytra somewhat elongate, closely 
but not distinctly punctured ; apices somewhat sharply rounded ; 
epipleures prolonged up to the apical border. Tibiae unarmed ; 
first joint of hind tarsi almost as long as the three succeeding 
joints combined. Antennae ( $ ?) almost as long as the body ; 
scape slightly curved, third and fifth joints subequal, fourth 
perceptibly longer, sixth and succeeding joints gradually and 
very slightly diminishing in length. 

Fam. CASSIDID^E. 

Basipta stolida, Boh. Durban, Natal. 

Cassida punctata, Fabr. Durban, Natal. 

Cassida scripta, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Cassida hybrida, Boh. Waterberg. 

Cassida lurida, Boh. Zoutpansberg. 

Fam. COCCINELLID.E. 

Adaliaflavomaculata, De Geer. Pretoria. 

Cydonia lunata, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Cydonia quadrilineata, Muls. Pretoria. 

Alesia inclusa, Muls. Pretoria. 

Exochomus nigromaculatus, Goeze. Pretoria. 

Epilachna dregei, Muls. Pretoria and Durban, 

Natal. 

Epilachna hirta, Thunb. Durban, Natal. 

Epilachna bifasciata, Fabr. Pretoria. 

P 



210 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Fam. ENDOMYCHID^:. 
Ancylopusfmcipennis, sp. n. (Tab. IV. fig. 10.) 

Head and prothorax reddish brown, elytra dark brown. Pro- 
notum slightly transverse, thickly and minutely punctulate, with 
a short longitudinal impression on each side near the base ; sides 
of the pronotum very slightly diverging from the base to a 
little beyond the middle, thence converging anteriorly; anterior 
margin arcuately emarginate. Elytra thickly and minutely 
punctulate. Legs and underside dark brown, with the bases 
of the femora and the middle of the breast somewhat reddish. 
Long. 5 millim. Pretoria. 

This species appears to be most nearly allied to Ancylopus 
bivittatus, Perch., which it closely resembles in form and punc- 
tuation, but from which it is to be distinguished by its smaller 
size and the dark brown coloration extending over the whole of 
the elytra. (C. J. Gahan.} 

HYMENOPTERA. 

I am indebted to Mons. Henri de Saussure for having worked 
out my collections in this order. The types of the new species 
which he has described are now in his fine collection at 
Geneva. 

Fam. APID^. 

Xylocopa inconstans, Smith. Pretoria. 

Megachile maxillosa, Guer. Pretoria. 

Helioryctes melanopyrus, Smith. Pretoria. 

Fam. VESPID^E. 

Eumenes tinctor, Chr. Pretoria. 

Synagris mirabilis, Guer. Pretoria. 

Pterochilus insignis, Sauss. Pretoria. 

Belonogaster rufipennis, De Geer. Pretoria. 

Fam. SPHEGID^. 

Larra arnata, Lep. Pretoria. 

Chlorion xanthocerum, Meig., var. Pretoria. 

Sphex nigripes, Sm., var. Pretoria. 

Pelop<Kus spirifex, Linn. Pretoria. 

Ammophila bonce spei, Lep. Pretoria. 

Ampulex nigro-c&rulea, sp. n. Pretoria. 



INSECTA. 



211 



Fam. 

Homonotus c&rulans, sp. n. 
Homonotus pedestris, sp. n. 
Priocnemis hirsutus, sp. n. 
Cyphononyx antennata, sp. n. 
Mygnimia belzebuth, sp. n. 
Mygnimia depressa, sp. n. 
Mygnimia distanti, sp. n. 
Mygnimia fall ax, sp. n. 

Fam. SCOLTID^E. 
Discolia caffra, Sauss. 
Discolia pracana, sp. n. 
Discolia prcestabilis, sp. n. 
Elis barbata, Sauss. 
Mesa diapherogamia, sp. n. 

Fam. MUTILLIDJE. 

Mutilla albistyla, sp. n. 
Mutitta tetensis, Gerst. 

Fam. FORMICID.E. 
Camponotus grandidieri, Forel. 
Carebara vidua, Linn. 
Dorylus helvolus, Linn. 

Fam. CHRYSIDID^E. 
Chrysis (Pyria) lynica, Fabr. 

Fam. ICHNEUMONIDjE. 

Hemipimpla caffra, sp. n. 
Hemipimpla calliptera, sp. r. 
Distantella trinotata, gen. et sp. n. 

Fam. BRACONID^E. 
Braconflagrator, Gerst. 
Braconfastidiator, Fabr. 

Fam. TENTHREDINID^. 
Athalia bicolor, sp. n. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 



p2 



212 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Descriptions. 
(Par M. HENRI DE SAUSSURE.) 

Familia SPHEGID.E. 
Genus Ampulex, Jurine. 
Ampulex nigrocarulea, Saussure (sp. n.) . (Tab. IV. fig. 6.) 

Sat minuta, nigra, laevigata, mandibulis et clypei apice rufis. 
Pronotum baud sulcatum,posticetuberculo acuto instructum. 
Metathorax abdominisque segmenta l m et 2 m splendide nigro- 
cserulea; metanoto bidentato, etsi transverse carinulato; abdo- 
minis segmenta 2 m et 3 m cinereo-pubescentia. Alse byalinse, 
basi inquinatse, ultra medium vitta transversali nigra. 
? . Long. 15 mill., al. 9. 

Tete, prothorax, mesotborax, ecusson et postecusson, noirs. 
Tete assez grosse, a bord posterieur arque, semee de petites 
ponctuations. Mandibules, extremite du cbaperon et scape des 
antennes en dessous, roux. Le front lisse, n'offrant que deux 
faibles et courtes cariuules surantennaires. Pronotum lisse, 
non partage ; son tubercule aigu ; ses bords lateraux en carenes 
arquees mousses ; sa partie anterieure finement striolee en lon- 
gueur et un peu en eventail (en forme d'arbuste). Le lobe 
superieur des propleures lisse comme le reste, sans aucune ponc- 
tuation. Mesonotum seme d'assez faibles ponctuations ; meso- 
pleures plus fortement ponctue"es. Metatborax d'un beau bleu 
metallique sombre; ses angles formant deux dents triangulaires 
aigues, comprimees et arquees, aussi fortes ou plus longues que 
cbez YA. compressa. La sculpture du metanotum presque la 
n.eme que chez la sibirica ; la 3 e bande intercarinaire de 
cbaque cote, s'etendant jusqu'a la base, aussi large que la 4 e ; 
celle-ci un peu retre*cie en arriere. Le bord posterieur un peu 
sinue de cbaque cote, comme cbez la compressa. La plaque 
postdrieure plate, grossierement reticuleusement ponctuee. Ab- 
domen noir ; ses deux premiers segments d'un bleu d'acier 
noiratre, semes de petites ponctuations ; le 2 e sur ses cote's et 
sur son bord posterieur et le 3 e , revetus d'un fin duvet gris. 
Les suivants glabres ; Tanus un peu roussatre. Pattes noires ; 
tarses roussatres en dessous. Ailes hyalines a nervures noires, 
avec une bande brune qui part du stigma et de la radiale ; les 



IN SECT A. 213 

cellules de la base et la cellule anale salies de bran; la 3 e 
cellule cubitale retrecie de vers la radiale. Ailes posterieures 
hyalines. 

Pretoria, 1 ? . 

Espece offrant sensiblement les memes formes que I' A. com- 
pressa, F. 

Familia POMPILID^E. 
Genus Homonotus, Dahlbom, Saussure. 
Homonotus carulans, Saussure (sp. n.). (Tab. V. fig. 1.) 

Niger, caerulans; alls fuscis, violascentibus. Caput compres- 
sum, postice concavum ; clypeo grandi, piano, late bilobato ; 
occipite acuto, arcuato. Thorax anterius subdepressus ; pro- 
noto, mesonoto aequilongo ; metathorace truncate, strigato. 
Abdomen sessile, ovato-conicum. Ungues dente obliquo 
armati. 
? . Long. 17 mill., al. H'5. 

? . Antennes noires a reflets roussatres dans leur secoude 
moitie. Tete plus large que le thorax, lisse, noire, avec des 
reflets bleuatres au sommet en devant, fortement concave en 
arriere; Pocciput tranchant, subbisinue au milieu, passant 
derriere les yeux. Ocelles aplatis, loges centre des depressions 
irregulieres. Yeux etroits, paralleles, k bord interne droit. 
Fossettes atitennaires grandes et profondes, reunies en dessous 
en une gouttiere bisinuee, faisant paraitre le chaperon en relief. 
Celui-ci tres grand, plat et lisse, formant une grande lame pro- 
longee en bas, a bords lateraux paralleles, a bord inferieur 
echancre au milieu et largement bilobe; ses deux pointes late- 
rales obliques, atteignant plus haut que bas des yeux, se'parees 
du prolongement par une petite echancrure. 

Thorax long et etroit, lisse; de profil a peine convexe en 
dessus. Pronotum aplati, un peu retreci en avant, fortement 
echancre en arriere d'une maniere presque angulaire; ses bords 
arrondis ; ses cotes creuses d'une gouttiere en V ; leur angle 
inferieur place en arriere; leur bord posterieur peu oblique, 
peu sinue. Mesonotum a peine aussi long que le pronotum, 
avec deux sillons tres lateraux. Ecailles alaires petites, borde'es 
de roux. Ecusson aplati. Metathorax point deprime; en 



214 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

dessus un peu moins long que large, partage par uri sillon, forte- 
ment ride en arriere, obsoletement en avant, off rant un sill on 
en avant de chaque stigmate; le sillon transverse de la base 
large, touchant le poste'cusson ; la plaque posterieure ridde, a 
bords arrondis ; metapleures veloutes, off rant souvent une petite 
arete oblique. Abdomen comprime des le 3 e segment ; ses 2 
premiers segments un peu aplatis. Pattes mediocres. Femurs 
tous presque e"galement forts ; tibias armes seulement de tres 
petites Opines. Tarses garnis en dessous de deux rangees de 
fortes spinules. Griffes bifides, mais leur dent inferieure beau- 
coup plus courte que la superieure et tronquee. Ailes etroites. 
La cellule radiale assez large, aussi aigue a sa base qu'a son 
extremite, a bord posterieur arque jusqu'a la 3 e veine transverso- 
eubitale, puis droit et oblique, formant a la cellule une pointe 
courte et aigue. Les 2 e et 3 e cellules cubitales plus larges que 
hautes ; la 2 C moins grande, en carre oblique, recevaut la l e 
veine recurrente ^ son 2 e tiers. Aux ailes posterieures la veine 
anale s'inserant un peu apres le point d'origine de la veine 
cubitale. 

Pretoria, 1 ? . 

Cette espece est tres caracterisee par ses formes qui rappel- 
ent celles de certains Salius, mais le metathorax ii'est pas 
echancre comme dans ce genre. 

Homonotus pedestris, Saussure (sp. n.). (Tab. V. fig. 6.) 

Gracilis,niger,cinereo-sericans; vertice acuto, transverse; clypeo 
baud producto ; pronoto postice angulatim inciso ; metatho- 
race Isevigato, subtruncato, postice erecto-fusco-setoso ; abdo- 
mine prismatico, segnientis basi plumbeatis, ultimo albo ; 
pedibus gracilibus, tibiis anticis brevissimis, reliquis longe 
remote spinosis ; femoribus et tibiis posticis runs nigro-spi- 
nosis, femoribus basi et apice nigris ; calcaribus tibiarum 
rufis ; alis pallide fuscis, 3 a areola cubitali petiolata. 

<J . Long. 12 mill., al. 10. 

(J . Tres grele. Antenncs noires, noueuses, les articles etant 
renfle*s en dedans vers leur base, comme s'ils ne se faisaient pas 
suite ; leur premier article aplati en dessous et blanc ; les articles 
3 e -5 e roux en dessous. Tete comprimee, plate en arriere ; le 
vertex formant une arete vive droite d'un oeil a Fautre, la tete 



INSECTA. 215 

n'etaiit point renflee en arriere des yeux. Ocelles assez grands, 
les posterieurs places presque contre Farete du vertex. Front 
subconvexe, partage par un sillon. Yeux legerement siuues a 
leur bord interne, un peu divergents vers le haut, n'atteignant 
pas la base des mandibules. Chaperon transversal, sinue dans 
toute sa largeur; le labre grand et arrondi. Bouche noire; 
palpes mediocres. 

Thorax comprirue retreci en arriere, voute en avant. Pro- 
notura aussi long que le mesouotum, echancre' a angle obtus en 
arriere, retre'ci en avant, a bords arrondis ; ses lobes lateraux 
hauts, excaves, terminus d'une maniere presqne carree, & angles 
arrondis ; leur bord anterieur peu oblique ; leur bord posterieur 
oblique, sinue ; leur angle sous-alaire arrondi, non tubercule. 
Mesonotum uni. ficailles bordees de roux. Ecusson ayant sa 
partie saillante etroite, allongee, aplatie. Metanotum un peu 
oblique, d'un poll mat, subconvexe, tronque d^une maniere peu 
franche ; sa face posterieure peu haute, subconvexe, garnie de 
gros poils courts bruns ou a reflets blancs, releves de bas en 
haut. Abdomen tres grele, sessile, comprime en dessous. Les 
segments d'un gris plombe avec leur bord posterieur plus ou 
moins largement noir (nud) ; segments 5 e et 6 e avec pubescence 
grise en dessus; le 7 e blanc. Pattes greles. Femurs anterieurs 
tres greles, armes d^une epine apicale interne ; les suivants plus 
larges, comprimes ; ceux de la 3 e paire avec 2 : 3 spinules en 
dessus vers leur extremity. Tibias anterieurs tres courts, pas 
plus longs que le metatarse, armes au bord externe de 2 epines 
et d'une 3 e apicale tres longue ; oflfrant en dessus 2-3 rangees de 
tres petites epines, et 3 epines apicales, dont 2 tres petites et 
Finterne longue. Tibias et metatarses des 2 e et 3 e paires armes 
en dessus et en dehors de deux rangees d' epines, tres espacees et 
peu nombreuses (2 : 3 ou 3 : 4). Femurs posterieurs roux avec 
la base noire ; leur extre'mite et celle des tibias avec un peu de 
noir. Toutes les epines noires, mais les eperons des tibias roux. 
Griffes bifides. 

Pretoria, 1 $ . 

Espece tres voisine de I'H. ibex, Sauss., de Madagascar, mais 
dout tous les tibias sont noirs. 



216 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Genus Priocnemis, Dahlb. 
Priocnemis hirsutus, Saussure (sp. n.). (Tab. V. fig. 3.) 

Niger, fulvo-hirsutus ; antennis, ore, clypeo, orbitis internis 
prothorace, tegulis pedibusque, aurantiis ; abdomine depressi- 
usculo, sessili ; segmentis l-3 late flavo-aurantio limbatis, 
reliquis aurantiis ; alis fusco-violaceis. 
? . Long. 18 mill., al. 16'5. 

Tete tres finement chagrinee ; chaperon convexe, ponctue. 
Thorax long, comprime ; le pronotum tres court veloute, 
largement sinue en arriere ; le milieu des bords lateraux 
offrant souvent un petit tubercule. Mesonotum un peu 
tricarene ; les deux depressions entre les cariuules souvent 
obliquement striees et la partie anterieure striee en longueur et 
ponctuee (chez certains individus le mesonotum est lisse) . La 
partie saillante de Pecusson triangulaire, n'atteignant pas le bord 
posterieur, ponctu^-strie ou lisse. Postecusson lisse, un peu 
renfle en tubercule arrondi au milieu en arriere. Metathorax 
tronque a arete tres arrondie ; ses angles tres arrondis ; sa base 
sans tubercles; sa face superieure convexe transversalement, 
assez finement striee ; la base en avant du sillon transversal 
lisse et fortement partagee; la face posterieure plate ou sub- 
convexe. Metapleures lisses. Tout le metathorax herisse de 
longs poils fauves. Abdomen un peu deprime, sess'ile, elliptique. 
Les larges bandes jaunes des 3 premiers segments echancrees 
au milieu. Pattes armees de petites epines ; tarses portant en 
dessous deux rangees de spinules espacees. Hanches souvent 
noires au bord externe. Griffes arm3es d'une tres petite 
dent. Ailes d'un brun fonce, avec leur extreme base et 
la base de la cote roux-veloutes. La 2 e veinule transverso- 
cubitale presque droite, non courbee en crochet en arriere ; la 
2 e cellule cubitale presque 3 fois plus large que haute, recevant 
la l e veine recurrente tres pres de son extremite. Aux ailes 
posterieures la veine anale s'inse'rant bien au-dela du point 
d^origine de la veine cubitale. 

Pretoria, 1 ? . 

Je possede d'autres individus provenant du Cap de Bonne 
Esperance. 



INSECT A. 217 

Ce Priocnemis est par sa ventilation alaire voisin des Mygnimia. 
II est remarquable par son corps veloute et herisse de polls gris- 
fauves, surtout longs au metathorax. 

Genus Cyphononyx, DaHb. 
Cyphononyx antennata, Saussure (sp. n.). (Tab. V. fig. 2.) 

Niger, velutinus, nigro-hirsutus ; antennis, clypeo, ore, genu- 
bus, tibiis et tarsis, aurantiis ; orbitis obscure runs ; alis nigro- 
violaceis. Postscutellum compressum, truncatum ; meta- 
notum arcuatum, strigatum, utrinque carinatum, basi utrin- 
que tuberculatura. Tibise posticse ? serrulatse. 
? . Long. 19 mill., al. 17. . Long. 15 mill., al. 14. 

? . Insecte veloute, finement ponctue ou rugule. Chaperon 
transversal. La face aplatie un peu excavee, bordee le long des 
yeux pas des bourrelets tres obsoletes qui se rejoignent en arc 
de cercle ou en echancrure de cceur en sommet de la face. Un 
sillon descendant de 1'ocelle anterieur se prolonge jusqu'au 
chaperon, partageant la protuberance surantennaire. Orbites 
posterieures et internes vers le bas, parfois toute la face et la tete 
par derriere, d'un roux sombre. Pronotum formant de chaque 
cote en tubercule transversal arrondi. Ecusson ayant sa partie 
saillante triangulaire etroite, avec une tache rousse avant Fex- 
tremite. Postecusson comprime en tubercule ou en dos d'ane 
arrondi ; tronque-arrondi en arriere. Metathorax convexe 
d'avant en arriere, de profil descendant par une courbe, non 
tronque ; assez plat transversalernent, strie, formant de chaque 
cote une arete vive qui part en dedans du stigmate, et en dehors 
de laquelle est une gouttiere laterale. La ligne mediane occupee 
par un sillon en gouttiere obsolete. Le sillon transversal de la 
base lineaire, mais la partie qui le separe du postecusson 
enfoncee, se con fondant presque avec le sillon, finement striee 
en travers. Abdomen fusiforme, sans reflets bleuatres. Pattes 
armees de tres nombreuses epines, fortes et courtes, souvent 
brunes. Tibias posterieurs serrules par dents ecailleuses. 
Tarses avec deux rangees de fortes spinules en dessous ; meta- 
tarses fort epineux. Griflfes bifides; leur branche superieure 
longuement droite, 1'inferieure de moitie moins longue, pas plus 
large que la superieure, a pointe mousse, non tronquee. Tarses 



218 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

des 2 e et 3 e paires ayant leurs articles un peu noirs a leur base. 
Ailes d'un brun tres fonce ; la cellule radiale plas aigue 
a sa base qu'a son extremite ; la 2 e cubitale en trapeze, un peu 
plus large que haute, recevant la l e veine recurrente pres de 
son extremite. Aux ailes posterieures la veine anale s'inserant 
sur le point d'origine de la veine cubitale. 

cJ . La face au dessus des antennes n'etant pas distinctement 
excavee et bordee. Tibias posterieurs non serrules. 

Pretoria, 2 ? , 1 $ . 

Espece tres voisine des C. dolosus et grandidieri, Sauss., de 
Madagascar ; s'en distinguant par sa face $ excavee, et par ses 
tibias et tarses jaunes. 



Genus Mygnimia, Smith. 
Mygnimia bdzebuth, Saussure (sp. n.). (Tab. V. fig. 8.) 

Gracilis, compressa, aterrima, velutina, nigro-liirsuta. An- 
tennae filiformes. Scutellum et postscutellura compressa. 
Metathorax truucatus, supra tenuiter strigatus, in medio 
compresso-rotundatus, angulis posticis rotundatis. Abdomen 
prismatico-fusiforme, sessile. Tibiae et tarsi antici subtus 
rufescenti-sericantes. Alae nigerrimse, violaceae. 
<J . Long. 25 mill., al. 24. 

c . Antennes legerement aplaties, non diiatees. Palpes bruns; 
le 3 e article des maxillaires long, les 3 deruiers courts et egaux. 
Pronotum faiblement sinue en arriere. Ecusson et postecusson 
comprimes en dos d'ane mousse. Metathorax a peine bitu- 
bercule a, sa base ; ses tubercules tres arrondis, obsoletes ; le 
sillon transverse de la base profond ; Pespace qui le precede 
non strie, fortement partage, un peu convexe de chaque cote. 
Le metanotum uu peu eleve en dos d^ane arrondi au milieu ; la 
face posterieure peu elevee. Griftes armees d^une dent aigue. 
Ailes a beaux reflets bleus un peu violets ; aux anterieures la 
l e veine recurrente aboutissant un peu avant Fextremite de la 
2 e cellule cubitale. Aux ailes posterieures la veine anale s'in- 
serant a angle aigu bien au-dela du point d'origine de la veiue 
cubitale. 

Pretoria, 1 <$ . 



INSECT A. 219 

Mygnimia depressa, Saussure (sp. n.). 

Statura media ; nigra ; antennis, pedibus abdominisque ultimo 
segmento, aurantiis; capite, prothorace, mesonoto, tegulis 
scutellique trigono supero, runs, pilis rufo-aureis vestitis, 
velutinis ; metanoto strigato ; tibiis posticis $ serrulatis j 
alis nigerrimis, violaceis, ima basi rufo- velutinis. 
? . Long. 25 mill., al. 22. 

De taille assez petite pour le genre. Mandibules et palpes 
roux. Chaperon grand, non largement sinue, mais a bord in- 
ferieur arque, echancre au milieu, les angles de 1'echancrure 
formant comme deux petits lobes arrondis. Mesonotum avec 
4 sillons ; les deux internes obsoletes, en gouttieres. La face 
superieure de Vecusson assez aplatie, en triangle aigu. Post- 
ecusson lisse, formant au milieu en arriere presque un tubercule 
arrondi. Metathorax tronque perpendiculairement en arriere, 
strie en travers, ddpourvu de tubercules stigmataires ; le sillon 
transverse de sa base profoud ; Tespace qui le separe du post- 
ecusson etroit, lisse, avec un gros point enfonce au milieu. La 
face posterieure subconcave, striole'e, sans aucun angle lateral ; 
son bord superieur tres arque. Abdomen deprime, sessile, 
lisse et poli ; extreme bord des segments 4 e et 5 e roussatre ; le 
6 e herisse de poils roux. Pattes armies d'epiues courtes et 
fortes. Tibias posterieurs $ portant en dessus une carene 
serrule'e de petites dents triangulaires. Aux ailes anterieures la 
cellule radiale tronque'e obliquement ; la 2 e veinule transverso- 
cubitale pcu courbee en arriere pour se continuer avec la l e veine 
recurrente. Aux ailes postdrieures la veine anale s'inserant sur 
la veine discoi'dale bien au-dela du point d'origine de la veine 
cubitale ; Pune et Fautre fortement courbees en crochet a leur 
insertion. 

Pretoria, 1 $ . 

Espece voisine pour le livree de la M. nenitra, Sauss., mais 
a formes plus deprimees ; s'en distinguant par son chaperon non 
largement sinue, son metathorax strie, par la venulation des ailes, 
etc. On trouve dans le midi de P Afrique plusieurs especes tres 
voisines de la M. depressa : 

M. peringueyi, n., a thorax comprime, a chaperon transversal, 



220 A NATUEALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

largement sinue ; la l e veine recurrente n'atteignant pas le bout 
de la 2 e cellule cubitale (done presque un Priocnemis). 

M. hottentota, n., a metathorax fortement ride", carene de 
chaque cote", peu distinctemente tronque ; a Faile posterieure la 
veine anale s'inserant sans crochet a peine au-dela de 1'origine 
de la veine cubitale. 

Mygnimia distanti, Saussure (sp. n.). (Tab. V. fig. 7.) 

Nigra ; antennis, pedibus, capite, ore, prothorace, vitta meso- 
pleurum, tegulis abdominisque ultimo segmento, flavo- 
aurantiis ; clypeo sinuato ; metathorace toto strigato ; alis 
nigro-cseruleis. 
? . Long. 28 mill., al. 23. 

Taille et formes comme chez la M. depressa. Le chaperon 
assez largement sinue, comme d'habitude. Thorax glabre, lisse 
et poli ; le mesonotum plat, n'offrant que deux fins sillons. Le 
reflet de 1'ecusson etroit et allonge, d'abord rapidement re- 
treci, puis presque parallele, tronque au bout. Postecusson 
offrant au milieu une petite bosse arrondie n'atteignant pas le 
bord posterieur ; ses parties laterales avec 3-4 rides transver- 
sales. Metanotum partout fortement strie, meme sur Faire 
postscutellaire ; sa base offrant de chaque cote un tubercule 
arrondi obsolete crenele ; son extremite tronqude perpendicu- 
lairement, k angle vif; la plaque posterieure plate, plus fine- 
rnent striee; son bord superieur peu arque, formant avec les 
aretes laterales une sorte d'angle, ces aretes crenelees au sommet. 
Abdomen subdeprim^, lisse, sessile. Le 5 e segment ayant son 
bord apical roux-testace ; le 6 e veloute d'un duvet orange et 
herisse de poils jaunes et bruns. Pattes armees de nombreuses 
epines brunes, plus longues que chez la M. depressa ; tibias 
posterieurs $ carenes et serrules comme chez cette espece. 

Ailes anterieures comme chez la M. depressa, mais avec la 
2 e veine transverso-cubitale plus fortement courbee en arriere ; 
aux ailes posterieures la veine anale s'inserant un peu au-dela 
du point d'origine de la veine cubitale et sans crochet (a angle 
aigu) ; la veine cubitale s'echappant en formant un grand arc 
en demi-cercle. 

Pretoria, 1 ? . 



INSECT A. 221 

Espece rappelant un peu le Priocnemis clypeatus, Klug 
(Symbol. Phys. pi. 39. fig. 14) . 

Mygnimiafallax, Saussure (sp. n.). (Tab. V. fig. 5.) 

Minor, gracilis ; antennis, capite, prothorace, mesopleuris, me- 
sonoto, tegulis, scutello et postscutello ia medio, pedibus, 
abdominisque segmentis 6 et 7 rufis vel aurantiis; meta- 
thorace rotundato, strigato ; alls fusco-violaceis. 

<?. Long. 14 mill., al. 12. 

Tete et thorax soyeux-veloutes. 

Chaperon un peu convexe, en trapeze reuverse, a bord in- 
ferieur droit. Mesonotum offrant souvent de chaque cote une 
bande noire dans sa gouttiere later ale, et le long du bord 
ante"rieur. Ecusson convexe. Postecusson formant au milieu 
une bosse arrondie, un peu strie sur les cotes deprimes. Meta- 
thorax offrant de chaque cote un tres faible tubercule stigma- 
taire, point tronque, mais arrondi, tombant obliquernent en 
arriere, ride en travers ; sa base entre le sillon transverse et le 
postecusson lisse ou faiblemeut stri^ en travers. Abdomen 
fusiforme, revetu d'un duvet soyeux grisatre, devenant rouss- 
atre aux derniers segments; le 5 e segment passant deja au 
roussatre. Pattes greles. Ailes anterieures : la cellule radiale 
assez aigue ; la 2 e veine transverse- cubi tale fortement courbee 
en crochet en arriere. Aux ailes posterieures la venulation 
comme chez la M. transvaaliana, mais la veine anale s'inserant 
tres pres du point d'origine de la veine cubitale. Far. Meso- 
notum noir avec 3 bandes rousses. 

Pretoria, 1 $ . 

J'aurais pris cet insecte pour le male de la M. distanti si son 
metathorax n'etait pas arrondi au lieu d'etre tronque. 

La M. peringueyi du Cap de Bonne Esperauce est une espece 
tres voisine, mais plus grande, a postecusson tubercule, et chez 
qui les veines anale et cubitale de 1'aile posterieure s'inserent 
sur le meme point, et ou la 1. veine recurrente s'insere sur la 
2 e cubitale avant Fextretnite de cette cellule (voir page 219). 



222 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Familia SCOLIIDJ?. 
Genus Scolia, L. 

Discolia pr&cana, Saussure (sp. n.). (Tab. IV. fig. 11.) 

Tota nigra, sat fortiter punctata, albido-pilosa ; thoracis et 
abdominis baseos pilis in certa luce f uscis vel nigris. Meta- 
thorax supra crassius punctatus, facie postica plana, punctata, 
margine supero leviter arcuato, acuto. Abdomen cseru- 
lescens ; primo segmento sat brevi ; reliquis albido-fim- 
briatis, lateribus abunde albido-hirsutis. Pygidiutn plana- 
tum, subexcavatum, rufescens, oblique sparse punctatum, 
apice rotundatum. Pedes albido-pilosi ; tibiarum calcaria 
antica rufa, parum incurva ; reliqua nigra, apice imo rufo. 
Ungues run, apice nigro. Alae fuscse, violascentes, vitta lata 
marginis antici nigra, limbo apicali a sinu anali subvitreo ; 
areola radiali et linea transversa primae cubitalis pallidioribus, 
flavicantibus ; areola radiali truncata, secundam cubitalem 
paulum superans. 

<J. Long. 15 mill., al. 13. 

La tete est fmement ponctuee; le vertex lisse; le thorax est 
plus finement ponctue en avant qu'en arriere ; le metaiiotum 
Tetant le plus fortement. La cellule radiale est tronquee, a 
angle apical- posterieur arroudi, et depasse un peu la 2 e cubitale. 
Les ailes ont la meme livree^ tres caracteristique, que la Liacos 
nigrila ; elles sont inegalement brunies a la base^ subhyalines 
depuis le milieu, mais avec une bande noire couvrant les cellules 
cubitales, occupant le bord anterieur jusqu'au bout. Les ailes 
posterieures sont brunies avec 1'extremit^ plus pale. 

Pretoria. 

Diftere des Sc. apicalis, Guer., fasciatipennis, Smith, alaris, 
Sauss., et disparilis, Kirby (peut-etre toutes identiques) par 
ses poils blancs (qui ne le sont pas par vetuste) . Neanmoins 
Fespece pourrait etre la meme. 

Discolia preestabilis, Saussure (sp. n.). (Tab. IV. fig. 9.) 

Nigra. Antennae, mandibulse, sinus ocnlorum, pedes (coxis 
exceptis), abdominis segmenta 4 m -6 m , necnon 2 1 et 3 1 
macula utrinque, rufa et rufo-hirta. Caput et thorax pilis a 
nigro ad ruium ludentibus hirsuta, fronte rufo-pilosella. 



INSECTA. 223 

Abdominis segmenta 2 m et 3 ra apice breviter, 3 m -5 m longe et 
abunde rufo-aureo fimbriata ; 6 m appresso-pilosum. Alse 
nigrae, cserulese ; areola radiali secundam cubitalem haud 
superante, apice subperpendiculariter incurva. Tegulse nigrre 
vel margine rufescente. 
? . Long. 18 mill., al. 12. 

Tete petite, lisse, ponctuee en devant. Chaperon non strie, 
ayant sa protuberance mediane arrondie, lisse ; son bord arque 
reflechi, point aplati. Foils du thorax paraissant noirs ou 
roux-dores, suivant le jour sous lequel on les regarde ; ceux du 
metathorax paraissant noirs. Thorax crible en avant. Meta- 
notum crible" de fortes ponctuations ; metapleures un peu moins 
grossierement ponctuees ; la plaque posterieure concave, lisse, 
ponctuee ; son arete superieure subangulaire et presque vive 
au lobe median ; ses angles lateraux mousses ; ses aretes late- 
rales prononcees mais emoussees. Abdomen ponctue ; les poils 
de sa base noirs ; les franges des 2 e et 3 e segments simples, 
courtes, partant d'un sillon place tres pres du bord apical. La 
cellule radiale ayant sa extremite peu etroite, arquee, a peine 
oblique. 

Pretoria. 



Genus Ells, Fabr., Sauss. 

Elis barbata, Saussure (apud Grandidier, Madagascar, Hy- 
meuopteres, p. 217, 1890). 

Nigra ; capite et thora?e longe ruf o-hirsutis ; metathorace supra 
confertim punctulato, medio margine angulatim retro- 
producto, faciei posticse marginibus haud acutis ; abdominis 
segmentis l-4 albido-fimbriatis, 5 et 6 fusco-setosis; pedibus 
albido-pilosis ; alis subhyalinis, venis ferrugineis, dimidia 
parte apicali nebulosa, subcyanescente. 
? . Long. 16 mill., al. 12. 

Noire. Antennes et mandibules noires. Tete et thorax 
herisses de longs poils d'un roux vif. Le m^sonotum assez 
grossierement ponctue. Ecailles passant au testace-roux. 
Metathorax en dessus densement et assez finement ponctue" ; 
sa plaque posterieure parsemee de petites ponctuatious, et ayant 
toutes ses aretes arrondies, sauf le milieu de Parete superieure, 



224 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

laquelle est tranchante et surplombe faiblement en formant un 
angle obtus. 

Abdomen noir ou le"gerement irise, a reflets moires, parseme 
de polls blanchatres, he'risse' a sa base. Segments 2 e et 3 e semes 
de ponctuations tres espacees ; 2 e -5 e ofl ? raut une zone marginale 
densement ponctuee et piligere, le devenant toujours plus forte- 
meut ; aux 2 e -4 e cette zone precedee par une zone mediane 
lisse et glabre, comme subcarende trans versalement aux 3 e et 4 e ; 
la base de ces segments faiblement ponctuee ; leurs cotes forte- 
ment cribles. En dessous, les segments 2 e -4 e ponctues a leur 
base et avec une ligne arquee de ponctuations piligeres placee 
apres le milieu, formant une sorte de sillon. Segments l er -4 e 
offrant, tant en dessus qu'en dessous, une frange de poils 
blanchatres couches, formant des bandes blanchatres tres 
nettes ; segments suivants garnis de soies brunes. 

Pattes herissees de poils blanchatres ; les epines des tibias et 
des tarses d'un blanc roussatre. Eperons des tibias posterieurs 
blanchatres; Tinterne tres long, fortement spatuliforme ; la 
spatule s'attenuant graduellement vers la base ; Pexterne court, 
styliforme, cannele, non dilate. 

Ailes legerement enfumees, avec un faible reflet rose-violace*; 
les nervures et leur entourage ferrugineux, ainsi que la coce 
jusqu'au bout de la cellule radiale ; celli-ci tres obtuse, tron- 
quee-arrondie, depassant fort peu la 2 e cubitale ; son bord 
apical formant, avec la cote, presque un angle droit. Le stigma 
nul. Var. Les poils du thorax cendres en dessous et sur les 
cotes. 

Pretoria. 

Espece plus petite que YE. capensis, intermediare pour la 
livree entre cette derniere et YE. rufa, la tete et le thorax 
etant revetus de longs poils roux comme chez cette derniere, 
Pabdomen orne de quatre bandes de poils blanchatres comme 
chez la premiere. Le grand eperon des tibias posterieurs est plus 
dilate que chez ces especes. Les nervures de 1'aile sont comme 
chez YE. capensis. 



INSECT A. 225 



Genus Mesa*, Saussure. 
Mesa, H. de Saussure, apud Grandidier, Madagascar, Hyme'nopteres, p. 244. 

Mesa diapherogamia, Saussure (sp. n.). (Tab. IV. fig. 8.) 
Nigra, nitida, cinereo-hirta; capite, antenuarum articulis 1, 2, 
pronoto, tegulis, mesopleuris, mesonoti macula utrinque, 
scutello pedibusque, rufis ; alis fusco-violaceis, posticis basi 
breviter vitreis. Thorax supra sparse crasse punctatus ; 
mesopleurse crassissime cribrosse; metanotum subconvexum, 
Iseviusculum, impunctatum, per sulcum longitudinalem divi- 
sum, vel potius minute bisulcatum et tricarinulatum ; facie 
postica plana, leviter obliqua, obsolete punctata, canthis 
lateralibus acutis, margine supero-apicali valde rotundato, 
tota crasse, haud profunde punctata. Abdomen sparse 
punctatum ; pygidium in longitudinem strigatum, apice 
obtusangulatum, angulo rotundato. Alarum venulatio ut in 
M. atopoffamia, Sauss. 
? . Long. 17 mill., al. 12'5. 

La tete est polie, non ponctuee en dessus, avec une tache 
noire sur les ocelles et Fespace sous les antennes noiratre. 
Le pronotum n'est guere ponctue au milieu, mais il 1'est forte- 
ment le long du bord posterieur, ce bord restant toutef ois etroite- 
ment lisse, depourvu de ponctuations, de meme que le bord 
anterieur du mesonotum. Le mesonotum offre k cote de cnaque 
ecaille une tache longitudinale rousse. 

Especetres voisine de la M. atopogamia (Sauss. 1. c.) de Zanzibar. 

Pretoria. 



Familia 
Mutilla albistyla, Saussure (sp. n.) . (Tab. IV. fig. 7.) 

Tota profuude atra, atro-pilosa. Caput reticulato-punctatum^ 
infra antennas profunde depressum. Antennae crassae, scapo 
pimctato, anterius carinato. Thorax elongatus, ubique cras- 
siuscule punctatus ; a latere anterius haud insigniter con- 

* This genus has been established to include the Pksice of the Old World ; 
these are distinguished principally by having the radial cell of the wing 
separate from the costa only at its end, while in the true Plesice (all 
American) this cell is separated from the costa in its whole length. 

Q 



226 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

vexus. Mesonotum carinulatum, profunde grosse bisulcatum. 
Tegulse dense punctatse. Scutellum valde prominulum, 
rotundatum, reticulato-punctatum, a mesonoto profunde 
sejunctum; postice et utrinque per sulcum latum canalicu- 
latum a metanoto separatum. Hoc in piano inferiore jacens, 
rotundatum, crasse reticulatum, per carinam longitudinalem 
divisum. Abdomen supra minus fortiter punctatum, niti- 
dum, nigro-pilosum, baud velutinum; primum segmentum 
sat breve, depressum, trapezinum; ejus carina ventralis parum 
prominula, anterius dentem trigonalem efficiens, retro evau- 
escens ; secundum segmentum utrinque macula velutina 
transversa alba ; segm. 6 ra apice et 7 m albo-pilosa ; boc apice 
truncatum. Pedes nigro-pilosi, femoribus partim cinereo- 
pilosis ; calcaribus tibiarum intermediarum et posticarum 
albidis. Alse nigerrimse,, cserulese, areolis cubitalibus 3, venis 
recurrentibus 2; areola radiali apice baud truncata; 2 a cubi- 
tali quam tertia latiore ; bsec paulo altior quam latior. 
cJ . Long. 20 mill., al. 19. 
Pretoria. 



Familia TENTHREDINID^E. 

Genus Athalia, Leacb, 
Athalia bicolor, Saussure, sp. n. 

Nigra ; mesonoto pubescente ; abdomine pedibusque flavo- 
testaceis vel fere aurantiis ; tibiis tarsorumque articulis apice 
nigris; alis subvitreis, dimidia parte basali venis flavidis, 
dimidia parte apicali nebulosa, venis brunneis ; venis costa- 
libus stigmateque fuscis. 

? - Long. 8 mill., al. 8. 

Antennes noires, souvent rousses en dessous. Tete et 
thorax noirs, revetus d'un duvet soyeux gris. La tete en 
devant fortement pubescente, presque argentee. Chaperon, 
labre et mandibules blancs ou jaunatres ; celles-ci avec leur 
extremite noire ou rousse et noire. Mesonotum pubescent, 
garni de poils brunatres. Prothorax et metathorax en dessous 
plus ou moins jaune-testaces. Postecusson passant souvent an 
testace au milieu et tache de noir; ses deux dents du bord 
anterieur blanches.- Abdomen jaune; Fespace lisse du l er seg- 
ment bien accuse; le fourreau de la scie noir. Pattes avec 



INSECT A. 227 

leurs handles jaunes ; tibias et tarses anneles de noir au bout 
des articles (par variete les pattes anterieures souvent non 
aunelees). 

Pretoria, 1 ? , 2 $ . 



Familia ICHNEUMONIDJE. 
Tribus PIMPLTN^:. 

Genus Hemipimpla, Sauss. 
Hemipimpla, Saussure, ap. Grandidier, Madagascar, Hymn. tab. 13. fig. 4. 

Tete comprimee a vertex transversal; sa face posterieure 
perpendiculaire. La fossette frontale prononce'e ; le vertex en 
dos d'une arrondi portant les ocelles ranges en triangle large et 
tres rapproches. Abdomen deprime, ? subcomprime a Fextre- 
mite ; le dernier segment ventral fendu, emboitant la tarriere ; 
celle-ci pen recouverte a sa base. (Pimplo'ida, Forst.) Ailes : 
I'areole grande, quadrangulaire, en rectangle oblique, petiolee. 
Pattes greles ; les femurs non fusiformes. La base de la 
tarri6re un peu recouverte par le 6 e segment ventral. 

Thorax poli ; metathorax ponctue. Abdomen chagrine, 
bossele, les segments Strangles en gouttiere apres le milieu. 
L'areole de Faile ayant sou bord anterieur brise avant le milieu, 
son bord posterieur apres le milieu. 

Hemipimpla caffra, Saussure, sp. n. 

Rufa ; antennis nigris, scapo subtus et imo apice ferrugineis ; 
alis ferrugineis, limbo apicali anguste irregulariter nigro ; 
posticis apice latius nigris, limbo postico angustissime nigro ; 
vagina nigra. 
? . Long. 14 mill., al. 13, oviposit. 4-5. 

Tete passant au jaune, surtout en devant. Le front avec 
deux fossettes. Le vertex arrondi, non borde. Thorax poli. 
Metathorax aplati-arrondi en arriere, et poli, en dessus lisse au 
milieu, ponctue de chaque cote et sur les flancs. Abdomen 
fortement, densement ponctue"-chagrine ; ses segments assez 
fortement etrangles apres le milieu. Tarses posterieurs bruns 

Q2 



228 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

en dessus. L'areole de 1'aile rectangulaire ; la veine recurrente 
un peu arquee. Le bord posterieur de Paile posterieure etroite- 
ment horde de noir dans sa seconde moitie. 
Pretoria, 1 ? . 

Hemipimpla calliptera, Saussure, sp. n. 

Atra ; capite sulfureo, fronte nigra ; prothorace, mesopleuris 
antice, mesonoti marginibus lateralibus, testaceis; tegulis 
pedibusque anticis succineis, his hrunneo-umbratis ; alis 
aurantiis, binis apice late nigris. 
? . Long, 13'5 mill., al. 12, oviposit. 4. 

Noir. Antennes noires. Le scape en dessous brunatre, 
surtout a son bord apical. La tete en devant jaune-pale, ainsi que 
la bouche, noire a sa face posterieure ; la face sous les antennes 
un peu brunie en milieu ; le front, avec les fossettes antennaires 
et le milieu du vertex, bruns. La fossette frontale trans versale. 
L'occiput formant une arete de chaque cote des ocelles. Angles 
posterieurs du pronotum, une tache sur la partie anterieure des 
mesopleures et souvent une ligne horizontale vers le has, ainsi 
que les bords lateraux du mesonotum jusqu'aux ailes, testac^s. 
Ecailes rousses. Metathorax poli et aplati en arriere, du 
reste crible de fortes ponctuations, sauf sur la ligne mediane. 
Abdomen fortement chagrine, densement convert de ponctu- 
ations presque finement-reticuleuses. Pattes des deux premieres 
paires jaune-d'ambre, ombrees de brun en milieu des articles; 
hanches noires ; les anterieures tachees de jaune en devant. 
Pattes posterieures noires ; tibias a leur base brievement 
jaunes ; leurs eperons jaunes. Dernier article du tarse roux. 
Ailes ferrugineuses ou orangees, avec une petite tache noire au 
bout du radius avant le stigma, et le bout de Porgane au-dela 
du stigma, noir ; la partie noire coupee perpendiculairement a son 
bord interne; aux ailes posterieures la partie noire coupee 
obliquement a son bord interne. L'areole un peu plus grande 
que chez la H. caffra ; en rectangle un peu elargi, vers sa base, 
c.-a-d. vers le bord interne; celui-ci un peu plus ?blique que 
I'externe. La veine recurrente plus courbee. 

Pretoria, 1 ? . 



IN SECT A. 229 

Tribus CRYPTIN.S:. 
Genus Distantetta, gen, n. 

Corpus gracile. Antennae filiformes, ? haud nodosse. Caput 
elongato-trigonale, infra oculos sat longe productum. Man- 
dibulse arcuatae, acutae, haud dentatse. Maxillae in rostrum 
breve products. Palpi labiales 4-articulati ; maxillares 5- 
articulati, artieulis 3 ultimis brevioribus. 

Occiput rotundatum. Ocelli magni, in trigonuni latum exserti. 
Oculi elliptici, convexi, subsinuati. Frons supra antennas 
utrinque foveolata, margine laterali ad sinum oculorum re- 
flexo. Facies infra antennas quara frons altior, in medio 
parallele prominula, superne subtuberculata. Clypeus ele- 
vatus, apice totus truncatus. 

Thorax compressus, rugatus, superne punctatus, antice atte- 
nuatus. Mesonotum longius quam latius, bisulcatum. Scu- 
tellum convexum. Metathorax brevis, rotundatus, rugosus, 
postice declivis, basi transverse angulato-carinulatus ; stig- 
mata rimata. 

Abdomen compressum, longe petiolatum. Primum segmentum 
filiforme^thoracepaulo brevius, arcuatum, subdepressum; ejus 
stigmata tuberculata, paulum pone medium aperta; petiolus 
pone ilia gradatim leviter dil-atatus^ sed nullomodo campanu- 
latus. Segmentum secundum elongato-infundibuliforme, 
quam latius duplo longius, haud compressum. Abdomen 
reliquum compressum. Segmentum 7 m subtus apertum, 8 m 
subtus fissum, supra apice truncatum. Terebra abdomiuis 
longitudine. 

Pedes antici et intermedii graciles ; tibiae anticae crassiusculae, 
superne dense spinulosae ; intermedise graciles, supra et sub- 
tus spinulis minimis seriatim instructaj. Pedes postici longi; 
femora basin versus attenuata ; tibiae crassae, compressae, 
superne et subtus rotundato-carinatae, basi attenuatae, latere 
externo piano, bisulcato, latere interno convexo. Tarsi sub- 
tus spinulosi ; metatarsi paralleli, reliquos articulos compu- 
tatos fere aequautes. 

Alae coloratae. Areola pentagonalis, sat grandis, quam latior 
valde altior, antice paulum coarctata, margine postico angu- 
lato. Stigma angustum, acute lanceolatum. Margo internus 
areolae disco'idalis posticae vix ultra angulum basalem areolse 
cubito-discoidalis exsertus ; hie angulus acutus, rotundatus. 
In alis posticis venula transverso-discoi'dalis obtusangulatim 
fracta, venam disco'idalem ante medium emittens. 

Je ne saurais indiquer les analogies de ce genre avec d'autres. 



230 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Je ne crois pas pouvoir le placer ailleurs que dans la tribu des 
Cryptiens. 

Distantella trinotata, Saussure, sp. n. 

Nigra; antennis subtus rufis, ultra medium annulo longo 
aurantio ; facie infra antennas clypeoque runs ; pedibus 
anticis fuscescentibus, tibiis subtus rufidis; posticis flavis, 
apice nigro, tarso flavo, metatarso nigro, apice flavo; 5 
articulo nigro ; abdominis segmentis 5-8 aurantiis ; terebra 
nigra ; alis aterrimis, violascentibus, punctis byalinis 
aliquibus, ornatis. 

? . Long. 25 mill., al. 20, petiol. 5'6, terebr. 15, antenn. 15, 
tib. post. 8. 

Tete finement et densement ponctuee. La face revetue d'un 
fin duvet soyeux gris, f aiblement cannelee en longueur de chaque 
cote ; son milieu formant une bande un pen saillante, parallele, 
occupant toute sa longueur et portant au sommet un petit 
tubercule allonge. Chaperon en forme de cloche, aussi haut 
que large en bas, aussi long que la face, finement pointille au 
sommet, strie au bas cl'une maniere un pen convergente; le 
bord inferieur transversal, finement lisse. Palpes bruns; Ics 
derniers articles roussatres, Favant-dernier le plus court. Meso- 
notum distinctement ponctue, assez densement, etroit en avant ; 
ses sillons non prolonged en arriere. Ecusson poli, seme de 
ponctuations eparses. Flancs rugueux, densdment rugules de 
strides sinueuses. M^tapleures rugules et ponctues; meta- 
notum rugueusement ponctu^, le devenant grossierement et 
reticuleusement ^, son extremite posterieure. La carene trans- 
verse oblique de chaque cote, formant au milieu un angle obtus 
arrondi dirige en avant, contigu au sillou postscutellaire. 
Stigmates en boutonniere. 

Petiole lisse, pointille* ; ses tubercules tres prononces, 
arrondis. 

Abdomen tres finement pointille-striole'. Stigmates du 
2 e segment places un peu en arriere du milieu ; ceux du 3 e 
places avant le milieu ; ceux du 5 e tout & sa base. Sixieme 
segment ventral transversal & bord posterieur peu arque. Pattes 
finement pointillees. Tibias posterieurs semes k leur face ex- 
terne d'epines microscopiques brunes. Eperons noirs, k pointe 
rousse; ceux des tibias anterieurs roux. Grinds noires. 



INSECTA. 231 

Ailes noires, avec de petits espaces hyalins tout a leur base et 
ornees de plusieurs petits points hyalins. Le bord posterieur 
de Fareole ayant son angle place en son milieu. La veine 
recurrente presque droite. Les points hyalins places, aux ailes 
anterieurs : un sur 1'extremite posterieure de chacune des deux 
premieres veines transverses, au contact de la veine anale, et 3 
autour de Fareole ; 1'une sur 1'angle posterieur-externe de 
Pareole; les deux autres plus grands, allonges, sur la veine 
cubitale et la veine recurrente, a quelque distance de Tareole ; 
ces 3 taches toutes a cheval sur les nervures, qui restent noires 
et les partagent. Aux ailes posterieures un point sur 1'extremite 
posterieure de la veinule transverso-cubitale et de la veinule 
transverso-discoi'dale. 

Pretoria, 1 ? . 



LEPIDOPTERA. 
RHOPALOCERA. 

I found no undescribed Butterflies around Pretoria, nor did I 
very much expect to do so, for when a specialist like Mr. Roland 
Trimen has presided for years at the Cape Town Museum, the 
captures made in South Africa have naturally found their way 
to him, and it would be well if such still continued to be the 
practice, at least for the present, and thus much synonymy, 
might be prevented. These remarks apply only to the Butter- 
flies, and not to other groups or orders of the South-African 
Insccta, which can only thoroughly be worked out in Europe. 

On the open plains which surround Pretoria butterfly-life is 
not seen in much profusion, nor are many species to be found. 
In the Danainse Danais chrysippus flies all the year round, 
throughout the warm, wet, and cool dry seasons ; both its 
varietal forms may also here be obtained, but they are very 
scarce, and constitute no appreciable proportion to the dominant 
form of the species (see ante, p. 65). In the Satyrinae I only 
met with the genus Ypthima in the warmer lowlands of Zout- 
pansberg, and did not see a single example about Pretoria. 
Among the Nymphaliuse that world-wide (excluding South 
America, New Zealand, and Australia) distributed butterfly 



232 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Pyramds cardui is found on the wing throughout the year, and its 
constancy of appearance seems also equalled by Junonia cebrene. 
The protective resemblance of Hamanumida daedalus has been 
described (ante, p. 41) ; but the lepidopterist has still much to 
observe on this point with other species, for in a world governed 
by unvarying natural laws, causation is now seen to have a new 
meaning, and not a butterfly possesses its peculiar coloration 
outside the rule of natural selection. Our admiration expressed 
for beauty alone is simply a confession of our ignorance. 

In the Pierinee the genus Teracolus frequents the warmer 
valleys of Natal and Zoutpansberg, and is moderately scarce 
around Pretoria. Colias elect ra is apparently on the wing 
throughout the year, and can be found alike in gardens and 
across the bare veld. 

Some of the butterflies are exceedingly scarce and local, and 
it was only on one restricted spot near Pretoria that I ever saw 
the beautiful lycsenid lolaus bowkeri, but in this narrow strip 
of scrub it could always be found during the season. I have 
appended the dates at which I found the species, but of course 
these in most cases simply relate to my own experience, and do 
not define the total period of the insect's appearance, 

Fam. NYMPHALID^:. 

Subfam. DANAINJE. 

Danais chrysippus, Linn. (Throughout the year) Pretoria. 
Var. alcippus, Cram. Pretoria. 

Var. dorippus, Klug. % Pretoria. 

Subfani. SATYRIN^E. 

Ypthima asterope, Klug. (May) Zoutpansberg. 

Pseudonympha narycia, Wallengr. (Dec.) Pretoria. 

Pseudonympha vigilans, Trim. (Dec.) Pretoria. 

Mycalesis perspicua, Trim. (May) Zoutpansberg. 

Melanitis leda. Linn. (Aug. & Sept.) Pretoria. 

Subfam. ACR^EINJE. 

Acraa horta, Linn. (Nov.) Pretoria. 

Acraa neobule, Doubl. (Feb. & Sept.) Pretoria, 

(May) Zoutpansberg. 



INSECTA. 



233 



Acrcea violarum, Boisd. 
Acrcea nohara, Boisd. 
Acrcea doubledayi, Guer. 
Acrcea caldarena, Hewits. 
Acrcea natalica, Boisd. 
Acrcea anemosa, Hewits. 
Acrcea encedon, Linn. 
Acrcea rahira, Boisd. 
Acrcea buxtoni, Butl. 

Planema esebria, Hewits. 



(Jan, 



(May) Zoutpansberg. 
(Jan.) Durban, Natal. 
(May) Zoutpansberg. 
(May) Zoutpansberg. 
(Jan.) Durban, Natal. 
(Sept.) Pretoria. 
(May) Zoutpansberg. 
(Feb.) Pretoria, 
to May) Zoutpansberg, 
Pretoria, and Natal. 
(Jan.) Durban, Natal, 



Subfam. 

Atella columbina, Cram. 
Pyrameis cardui, Linn. (Throughout 
Junonia cebrene, Trim. (Throughout 
Junonia clelia, Cram. 
Junonia boopis, Trim. 
Precis cloantha, Cram. (Aug 

Precis ceryne, Boisd. 
Precis sesamus, Trim. 
Precis archesia, Cram. (Feb 

Precis natalica, Feld. 

Salamis anacardii, Linn. 
Eurytela hiarbas, Dru. 
Hypanis ilithyia, Dru. 



Neptis agatha, Cram. 
Hypolimnas misippus, Linn. 

Hamanumida dcedalus, Fabr. 



(Sept 

(Jan 

(Aug. 



(Mar.) 
the year) 
the year) 
(May) 
(Feb.) 
& Mar.) 
(May) 
(Feb.) 
. & Mar.) 
(May) 
(Jan.) 
(Jan.) 
(Jan.) 
(May) 
i. & Mar.) 
(May) 
. & Mar.) 
(Jan.) 
to June) 
(May) 



Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Zoutpansberg. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Zoutpansberg. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Zoutpansberg, 

Durban, Natal. 

Durban, Natal. 

Durban, Natal. 

Zoutpansberg, 

Pretoria. 

Zoutpansberg. 

Pretoria, 

Durban, Natal. 

Pretoria, 

Zoutpansberg. 



Fam. 

Catochrysops osiris, Hopff. 
Tarucus telicanus, Lang. 



(May) Zoutpansberg. 
(May) Zoutpansberg, 
(Oct. to Mar.) Pretoria. 



234 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Castalius melana, Trim. (May) Zoutpansberg. 
Azanusjesous, Guer. (Oct.) Pretoria. 

Cigaritis kroma, Wallengr. (Oct.) Pretoria. 

Lycaenesthes Rodes, Hewits. (Feb.) Pretoria. 

lolaus bowkeri, Trim. (Feb.) Pretoria. 

Chrysorychia amanga, Westw. (Mar.) Pretoria. 

Zeritis orthrus, Trim. (Sept.) Pretoria. 

Pentila tropicalis, Boisd. (Jan.) Durban, Natal. 

Alana amazoula, Boisd. (Jan.) Durban, Natal. 

Fam. PAPILIONID/E. 

Subfam. PIEBINJE. 
Terms brigitta, Cram. ' (May) Zoutpansberg, 

(Aug., Sept., Oct.) Pretoria. 
Terias zoe, Hopff. (May) Zoutpansberg, 

(Dec., Jan., & Feb.) Pretoria. 
Mylothris agathina, Cram. (May) Zoutpansberg, 

(Feb. & Mar.) Pretoria. 
Pieris mesentina, Cram. (May) Zoutpansberg, 

(Aug. to June) Pretoria. 

Pieris gidica, Godt. (Jan.) Durban, Natal. 

Pieris severina, Cram. (May) Zoutpansberg. 

Herpenia eriphia, Godt. (Feb.) Pretoria. 

Teracolus subfasciatits , Swains. (May) Zoutpansberg. 

Teracolus eris, Klug. (Feb.) Pretoria. 

Teracolus evenina, Wallengr. (Feb.) Pretoria. 

Teracolus achine, Cram. (May) Zoutpansberg, 

(Nov.) Pretoria. 
Teracolus gavisa, Wallengr. (May) Zoutpansberg, 

(Jan.) Durban, Natal. 
Teracolus omphale, Godt. (May) Zoutpansberg, 

(Jan.) Durban, Natal. 

Teracolus theogone, Boisd. (May) Zoutpansberg. 

Teracolus phlegetonia, Boisd. (May) Zoutpansberg. 

Teracolus vesta, Reiche. (May) Zoutpansberg. 

Colias electro, Linu. (Probably throughout the year) Pretoria. 
Eronia leda, Boisd. (Jan.) Durban, Natal. 

Catopsiliaflorella. (May) Zoutpansberg. 



INSECTA. 235 



Subfam. 

Papilio morania, Angas. (Jan.) Durban, Natal. 

Papilio demoleus, Linn. (Sept.) Pretoria, 

(Jan.) Durban, Natal. 

Fam. HESPERID^:. 

Cyclopides willemi, Wallengr. (Feb.) Pretoria. 

Pyrgus vindex, Cram. (Sept.) Pretoria. 

Pyrgus diomus, Hopff. (Aug.) Pretoria. 

Pamphila hottentota, Latr. (May) Zoutpansberg, 

(Oct.) Pretoria. 
Hesperia forestan, Cram. . (Feb.) Pretoria. 



HETEROCERA. 

In Sphingidse one is reminded of home when catching Proto- 
parce convolvuli or breeding Acherontia atropos, but the hawk- 
moths are not common, Macroglossa trochilus being the most 
abundant species. Among the day-flying Agaristidae Pats 
decora frequents the bare veld, but in single examples; the 
genus Xanthospilopteryx I only found in the wooded districts 
of Pretoria. Another moth that frequents the open veld is 
Deiopeapulchella, remarks on whose habits have been previously 
made (ante p. 68). Petovia is a genus not often found, but its 
species have a slow conspicuous flight, and I took P. dichroaria 
flying in the busy streets of the town of Pretoria. Many moths 
come to light which are not seen otherwise, and, when making 
long coach-journeys, I have frequently boxed a good specimen 
at the lamp which illuminated the frugal meal obtained at 
the lone posting-houses on the bare and dreary veld. Even 
Saturniidae come to light, as I found Urota sinope to do at 
Durban. 

In the identification of the Heterocera I have received much 
assistance from Messrs. Butler, Kirby, and Warren at the 
British Museum ; and among the Micro-Lepidoptera, I have had 
the great help of Lord Walsingham, and his Secretary, Mr. J. 
Hartley Durrant, has described a new genus and species. 



236 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Fam. 



Hemaris hylas, Linn. 
Macroglossa trochilus, Hiibn. 
Chcerocampa schenki, Mosch. 
Acherontia atropos, Linn. 
Prutoparce convolvuli, Linn. 



(May) Zoutpansberg. 
(Feb.) Pretoria. 
(Sept.) Pretoria. 
(Mar.) Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Fam. 

Syntomis khulweinii, Lefebv. 
Trianeurafulvescens, Walk. 



Anteris zelleri, Wallengr. 
Neurosymploca concinna, Dalm, 
Neurosymploca agria, sp. n. 
Arthileta cloeckneria, Cram. 
Euchromia qfricana, Butl. 



(Jan.) Durban, Natal. 
(May) Zoutpansberg 

and Pretoria. 
(May) Zoutpansberg. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 
(Jan.) Durban, Natal. 



Description. 



Neurosymploca agria, sp. n. (Tab. II. fig. 9.) 

Anterior wings black, with six large ochraceous spots, arranged 
transversely and obliquely in pairs, two at base, two at centre, 
and two subapical, the last spot long and subquadrate ; posterior 
wings carmine-red, apical and outer margin (not reaching anal 
angle) black, and a small discal black spot near centre of upper 
margin of cell. Wings beneath as above. Head, antennae, and 
thorax black, a large ochraceous spot on each side of pronotum; 
abdomen carmine-red, its extreme apex fuscous ; legs black, 
tinged beneath with ochraceous. 

Exp. wings 29 millim. (W. L. D.) 

Fam. AGARISTID^E. 

Pais decora, Linn. Pretoria. 

Xanthospilopteryx superba, Butl. (Feb.) Pretoria. 

Fam. NYCTEMERID^:. 
Leptosoma apicalis, Walk. (Jan.) Durban, Natal 



IN SECT A. 237 

Fam. LITHOSIID,E. 

Lithosia ?fumeola, Walk. (Feb.) Pretoria. 

Siccia caffra, Walk. Pretoria. 

Petovia marginata, Walk. Pretoria. 

Petovia dichroaria, Herr.-Sch. Pretoria. 

Deiopeia pulchella, Linn. Pretoria. 

Fam. ARCTIID.E. 

Teracotana submacula, Walk. Pretoria. 

Binna linea, Walk. Pretoria. 

Binna Madagascar iensis, Butl. Pretoria. 

Anace lateritia, Herr.-Sch. (Jan.) Heidelberg. 

Egybolia vaillantina, Stoll. (Jan.) Durban, Natal. 

Decimia bicolorata, Walk. (Jan.) Wakkerstroom. 



Fam. 

Laelia adspersa, Herr.-Sch. Pretoria. 

Fam. NOTODONTID.E. 

Calpe apicalis, Walk. Pretoria. 

Fam. LIMACODID.E. 

Crothama decorata, sp. n. (Tab. II. fig. 6.) 

Anterior wings above violaceous ; the basal costal margin 
and base, an irregularly shaped spot below discal centre, and 
an apical streak ochraceous ; a much-waved transverse fascia 
commencing at about centre of costal margin and reaching 
discal spot, which it inwardly margins, and a large subapical 
patch creamy white, the last partly contains the apical ochra- 
ceous streak ; outer margin with small violaceous spots and 
lunules ; fringe ochraceous. Posterior wings and body warm 
bright ochraceous, wings and body beneath bright ochraceous, 
the anterior wings with a strongly reddish tinge. 

Exp. wings 36 millim. 

Allied to C. sericea, Butl., from Madagascar. (W. L. D.} 

Fam. LASIOCAMPID^:. 
Lebeda aculeata, Walk. (Aug.) Pretoria. 



238 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



Fam. SATURNIID^E. 



Gynanisa maia, Klug. 
Urota sinope, Westw. 
Aphelia apollinaris, Boisd. 

Fam. HEPIALID.E. 
Gorgophis libania, Cram. 

Noc TUB s. 
Fam. LEUCANIID^E. 

Leucania apparata, Wallengr. 
Leucania percussa, Butl. 
Leucania substituta, Wallengr. 
Leucania amens, Walk, (nee Guer.). 
Axylia dnctothorax, Walk. ? 

Fam. ACONTIID^E. 
Tarache caffraria, Cram. 

Fam. 
Agrotis biconica, Koll. 

Fam. 

Mamestra breviuscula, Walk. 
Mamestra renisigna, Walk. 
Ozarba dubitans, Walk. 
Ozarba dens a, Walk. 



(Sept.) Pretoria. 
(Jan.) Durban, Natal. 
(Jan.) Durban, Natal. 



Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Fam. PLUSIID.E. 
Plusia acuta, Walk. Pretoria. 

Fam. PoLYDESMIDiE. 

Polydesma landula, Guen. (May) Zoutpansberg. 

Fam. OMMATOPHORID^E. 
Cyligramma latona, Cram. Pretoria. 



INSECT A. 239 

Fam. OPHIUSID^:. 

Ophisma pretoria, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Ophisma croceipennis, Walk. (May) Zoutpansberg. 

Sphingomorpha monteironis, Butl. Pretoria. 

Description. 

Ophisma pretorice, sp. n. (Tab. II. fig. 7.) 

Anterior wings above dull brownish ochraceous with a glossy 
hue, crossed by a dark curved linear fascia at about one third 
from base, slightly directed outwardly; two much-waved and 
inwardly-curved linear fasciae crossing wing beyond cell ; basal, 
costal, and outer margins dusky brown ; two small black spots 
at extremity of cell, and an outer submarginal series of black 
dots : posterior wings pale brownish, the outer margins fuscous. 
Wings beneath paler than above ; anterior wings with an elon- 
gate spot at end of cell, and a curved waved fascia crossing wing 
between end of cell and apex ; outer margin dull ochraceous, 
with darker elongate marks between the nervures : posterior 
wings with a dark spot in cell, two linear fasciae crossing wing 
beyond cell, the innermost nearly even, the outermost much 
waved, hind margin as in anterior wing. Body and legs dull 
brownish ochraceous. 

Exp. wings 53 millim. 

This species appears to be most closely allied to 0. senior, 
Walk. (W. L. D.) 

DELTOIDES. 
Fam. HERMINIID^E. 

Epizeuxis athiops, sp. n. (Tab. II. fig. 2.) 

Anterior wings above ashy grey, mottled with fuscous ; six 
distinct dark spots on costal margin, which are continued more 
or less distinctly across wing in waved fasciae, before the apical 
fascia the colour is irregularly and narrowly warm ochraceous, 
a series of small dark spots on outer margin; fringe long and 
ashy grey : posterior wings above pale ashy grey, streaked on 
basal area with dark fuscous. Wings beneath pale ashy grey, 
with the dark markings of the upper side practically absent. 



240 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Body above concolorous with wings, beneath much paler in hue; 
anterior tibise dark fuscous. 

Exp. wings 18 millira. 

The most closely allied species to E. aethiops appears to be the 
E. maculifera, Butl., from Dharmsala. (W. L. D.) 

G-EOMETRITES. 

Gonodela amandata, Walk. Pretoria. 

Nassunia bupaliata, Walk. Pretoria. 

Cidaria pudicata, Guen. Pretoria. 

Osteodes turbulentata, Guen. Pretoria. 

Sterrha sacraria, Linn. Pretoria. 

Eubolia deercana, Walk. Pretoria. 

Eubolia proxaulkaria, Walk. Pretoria. 

Eubolia punicaria, Guen., var. Pretoria. 

Lycauges donovani, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Acidalia gazella, Wallengr. Pretoria. 

C&nina pcecilaria, Herr.-Sch. Zoutpansberg. 

Description. 

Lycauges donovani, sp. n. (Tab. II. fig. 4.) 

Wings above pale ochraceous, dusted with fuscous ; anterior 
wings with a fuscous fascia commencing at apex and terminating 
on inner margin near centre, a zigzag fuscous line crosses cell 
to inner margin, outer margin with a double series of small 
brown spots ; posterior wings crossed by three transverse dark 
fasciae, the central one very sinuate, outer margin with a double 
series of small brown spots. Wings beneath much paler in 
hue ; cells of both wings with a small black spot at apices ; 
basal areas darker, a dark oblique fascia crossing both wings, 
and a dark waved outer submarginal fascia ; extreme outer 
margin minutely spotted with fuscous. Body above concolorous 
with wings, but abdomeu banded with fuscous ; body beneath 
concolorous with wings ; legs dull ochraceous. 

Exp. wings 25 millim. 

I have named this species after T. Donovan, to whose exer- 
tions at Pretoria I am indebted for the acquisition of many 
small Heterocera. (W. L. D.} 



IN SECT A. 



241 



PY RALES. 

Fam. BOTYDID.E. 
Acharana otreusalis, Walk. 
Paliga infuscalis, Zell. 
Pionea africalis, Guen. 

Fam. MARGARONID^E. 
Euclasta warreni, sp. n. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 



Fam. SPILOMELID.E. 
Haritala quatemalis, Zell. 



Pretoria. 



Fam. PYRALID^E. 



Py ralis farinalis, Linn. 
Aglossa basalis, Walk. 

Fam. 

Nomophila noctuella, Schiff. 
Tritaa lacunalis, Zell. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Description. 

Euclasta warreni, sp. n. (Tab. II. fig. 5.) 

Anterior wings above silvery grey, more or less shaded with 
brownish, excepting a long discal streak which is shining and 
immaculate ; a narrow basal subcostal line, a large irregular 
fascia occupying upper half of cell and extending to apex, two 
spots sometimes fused on lower apical area, and some marks 
near inner margin dark fuscous. Posterior wings pale greyish 
hyaline, margins fuscous apical broadly and posterior very 
narrowly. Wings beneath much paler in hue. Body above 
greyish brown, head with three longitudinal silvery lines in 
front of eyes, margins of thorax and upper surface of abdomen 
shaded with silvery grey. 

Exp. wings 35 millim. (W. L. D.) 

R 



242 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Fam. TINEID.E. 
(By JNO. HARTLEY DURRANT, F.E.S., M.Soc.Ent.Fr.) 

Subfam. TINEINJE. 

Sematocera, gen. nov. 

(o%ia = a sign, #epa? = a horn.) 

Type, ^ . Sematocera fuliginipuncta. (Tab. IV. figs. a,b, c, d,e.*) 

Antennae slightly more than half the length of the fore wings ; 
bipectinate (5), each pectination biciliate. 

Maxillary palpi folded (concealed in the clothing of the labial 
palpi). 

Labial palpi, second joint recurved, densely clothed beneath, 
almost concealing the porrect apical joint. 

Haustellum not apparent. 

Head somewhat roughly clothed above. 

Fare wings, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, apical 
margin oblique. Neuration : 12 veins, all separate ; 7 to apex, 
continued through the cell to between 10 and 11, and forming 
a supplementary cell, from which arises 8, 9, and 10 ; another 
internal vein from the base is forked near the end of the cell, 
one branch going to between 5 and 6, the other to between 3 
and 4 ; 1 furcate at base. 

Hind tvings slightly wider than the fore wings, subovate. 
Neuration : 8 veins, all separate ; the internal vein is forked, 
one branch going to between 3 and 4, the other to between 6 
and 7 ; 1 b furcate at base. 

Abdomen moderate ; anal appendages strongly developed. 

Legs, hind tibiae clothed on their inner side. 

This genus differs from Scardla, Tr. (to which it is nearly 
allied), in the form of the palpi and the bipectinate antennae. 
Euplocamus, Latr., which has similar antennae, is distinguished 
by the structure of the palpi and by having veins 7 and 8 of 
the fore wings from a common stem. 

The possession of folded maxillary palpi separates it from 
Lasioctena, Meyr. (/. H. D.} 

* 4 a. Neuration; 46. Head; 4c. Inner side of labial palpus, showing 
the concealed maxillary palpi ; 4 d. Part of antennae ; 4 e. Three joints of 
antennae, highly magnified. 



INSECTA. 243 

Sematocera fuliffinipuncta, sp. n. (Tab. IV. fig. 4.) 

Antennae dark fuscous. 

Palpi brownish ochreous. 

Head ochreous. 

Thorax dull white, with sDme blackish scales at the base and 
apex of the tegulae, and a few before its junction with the 
abdomen. 

Fore wings dull white, with soot-black spots which tend to 
form irregular fasciae ; at one third from the base a redupli- 
cated fascia of black spots arises from the costa and, inclining 
obliquely outwards to the outer edge of the cell, is angulated 
downward to the dorsal margin ; the costa is spotted with black 
from the base to the origin of these fasciae, and near the base 
of the wing is another outwardly angulated fascia of spots ; the 
apical third of the wing is irrorated with black spots, which, 
however, also arrange themselves in fasciaform lines ; cilia dull 
white, with some fuscous scales intermixed. The markings can 
be distinctly traced on the underside. 

Hind wings pale greyish ochreous, with cilia of the same 
colour. 

Abdomen pale greyish ochreous. 

Hind legs pale ochreous ; tarsi unspotted. 

Exp. al. 22 millim. 

Hob. Transvaal: Pretoria (Distant). 

Type <?. (J.H.D.) 

Tinea, L. 
Tinea vastella , Z. 

Transvaal : Pretoria (Distant). 
A single female in poor condition. 

Tinea, sp. 

Transvaal : Pretoria (Distant}. 

A single specimen without abdomen is in poor condition. 
It is smaller than any specimen of vastella that I have yet seen ; 
but if not that species it is, at least, so closely allied to it that 
a comparative description would be useless. The head is bright 

R 2 



244 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

canary-yellow, and the underside of the fore wings deep purplish 
fuscous, with the apical third of the costa and the cilia dull 
ochreous. Exp. al. 18 millim. (/. H. D.) 

DIPTERA. 
(By ERNEST E. AUSTEN, Zool. Dept. Brit. Mus.) 

Fam. TABANID^E. 
Pangonia subfascia, Wlk. 
Silvius denticornis, Wied. 
Tabanus socius, Wlk. 
Atylotus, sp. (allied to Tabanus (Atylotus} diurnus, Wlk.) . 



Fam. 

Microstylum dispar, Lw. 

Microstylum, sp. (? nov. Closely allied to M. gulosum, Lw.) . 
Lophonotus, sp. (? iiov.). 
Lophonotus, sp. (? nov. Allied to L. ustulatus, Lw.) . 

Fam. Muscle. 
Calliphora marginalia, Wied. 
Musca domestica, L. 

Fam. SARCOPHAGID^;. 
Sarcophaga, sp. 

Fam. HIPPOBOSCID^E. 
Hippobosca rufipes, Olfers. 

[This species not only attacks horses, but also frequently 
attached itself to my neck. (W. L. D.)] 

RHYNCHOTA. 
HETEROPTERA. 

The open plains which surround Pretoria are not cal- 
culated to prove a home for many species of this order, 
though the tall blooming grasses and Asclepiads (Gompho- 
carpus) are particularly attractive to Lygseids (the rare Lygceus 



INSECTA. 



245 



septus, Germ., was thus found), whilst many species, especially 
Reduviids, were only met with under stones and pieces of quartzite, 
These are favourite situations during the dry season for many 
insects, and even Pentatomidae are no exception to the rule, 
hut in a bare and treeless region find their only shelter under 
the rocky debris which strew the plains. On the wing, species 
of the genus Aspongopus and Anoplocnemis curvipes are the 
most abundant, and appearing early, fly throughout the summer 
season, whilst during the same period the stridulation of Platy- 
pleura divisa is heard from most of the willow trees that 
abound in Pretoria. I was surprised to find how many small 
beetles become the prey of the Reduviids, and the rostrum of 
Physorhynchus patricius produces more intense pain than 
the bite or puncture of any other insect with which I am 
acquainted. 

Small as the material collected is, I am able to add a new 
genus and fifteen species hitherto unrecorded in entomological 
literature. 



Fam. PENTATOMID^E. 

Subfam. 



Steganocerus multipunctatus , Thunb. 
Callidea natalensis, Stal. 



Subfam. 
Dismegistus fimbriatus, Thunb. 

Subfam. ASOPIN;E. 
Glypsus mcestus, Germ. 
Glypsus conspicuus, Hope. 
Cimex figuratus, Germ., var. n. 



Subfam. 

C&nomorpka nervosa, Dall. 
Paramecocoris ventralis, Germ. 
Paramecocoris atomarius, Dall. 
Tropicorypha corticina, Germ. 
Ilolcostethus obscuratus, sp. n. 
Halyomorpha capitata, sp. n. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Waterberg. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Zoutpansberg. 



246 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



Halyomorpha pretoriae, sp. nov. 
Veterna sanguineirostris, Thunb. 
Veterna puyionata> Stal. 
Veterna patula, sp. n. 
Veterna subrufa, Stal: 
Caura rufiventris, Germ. 
Dichelocephala lanceolata, Fabr. 
Carbula trisignata, Germ. 
Agonoscelis versicolor, Fabr. 
Agonoscelis erosa, Hope. 
Agonoscelis puberula, Stal. 
Bagrada hilaris, Burm. 
Nezara viridula, Linn. 
Nezara capicola, Hope. 
Antestia transvaalia, sp. n. 
Pie z odor us pur us, Stal. 

Subfatn. 

Aspongopus japetus, Dist. 
Aspongopus nubilus, Hope. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Waterberg and Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Subfam. PHYLLOCEPHALIN^:. 
Gellia angulicollis, Stal. Pretoria. 



Fam. COREID^S. 



Subfain. 

Elasmopoda undata, Ball. 
Hoploterna valga, Linn. 
Anoplocnemis curvipes, Fabr. 
Homceocerus magnicornis , Burm. 
Homosocerus annulatus, Thunb. 
Rhyticoris terminalis, Burm. 
Plinachtus pungens, Thunb. 
Plinachtus falcatus, sp. n. 
Cletus ochraceus, Herr.-Schaff. 
Acanthocoris lugens, Stal. 



Durban, Natal. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria and Durban. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Durban, Natal. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 



Subfam. ALYDINJB. 
Mirperus jaculus, Thunb. Pretoria. 



1NSECTA. 



247 



Fam. 
Subfam. 

Oncopeltus famelicus, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Lyga-us elegans, Wolff. Pretoria. 

Lygceus trilineatus, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Lyg&us planitia, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Lygaus deeertus, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Lyg&us rivularis, Germ. Pretoria. 

Lygaus campestris, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Lygeeus septus, Germ. Pretoria. 
Aspilocoryphus fasciativentris , Stal. Pretoria. 

Lygteosoma villosula, Stal. Pretoria. 

Transvaalia lugens, gen. et sp. n. Pretoria. 

Nysius novitius, sp. n. Pretoria. 

Pamera proximo,, Dall. Pretoria. 

Pachymerus apicalis, Dall. Pretoria. 

Dieuches armipes, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Dieuches patruelis, Stal. Pretoria. 



Fam. 

Subfam. PYRRHOCORINJE. 
Dermantinus limbifer, Stal. 



Dermantinus lugens^ Stal. 
Scantius forsteri, Fabr. 



Zoutpansberg and 

Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Fam. REDUVIID^E. 

Subfam. KEDUVIINJE. 



Pantoleistes princeps, Stal. 
Reduvius erythrocnemis, Germ. 
Reduvius pulvisculatus, sp. n. 
Reduvius sertus, sp. n. 
Reduvius capitalis, sp. n. 
Reduvius rapax, Stal. 
Physorhynchus crux, Thunb. 
Physorhynchus patricius, Stal. 



Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Waterberg and Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 



248 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Subfam. PIBATIN.S:. 



Pirates lugubris, Stal. 
Pirates conspurcatus, sp. n. 

Subfam. ACANTHASPIDIN^:. 
Edocla quadrisignata, Stal. 



Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 



HOMOPTERA. 
Fara. 



Platy pleura divisa, Germ. 
Platypleura punctigera, Walk. 
Tibicen carinatus, Thunb. 
Tibicen undulatus, Thunb. 

Fam. CERCOPID^E. 

Subfam. CERCOPIN.S:. 

Locris transversa, Thunb. 
Locris arithmetica, Walk. 

Subfam. APHHOPHORIN^:. 
Poophilus actuosus, Stal. 



Pretoria. 
Durban, Natal. 
Pretoria. 
Pretoria. 



Durban, Natal. 
Pretoria. 



Pretoria. 



Notes and Descriptions. 
Cimex figuratus, Germ., var. (Tab. III. fig. 1.) 

Asopusfiguratus, Germ, in Silb. Rev. Ent. v. p. 185, no. 132 (1837). 

Bright blue, shining, corium paler and more greenish in hue ; 
head with the central lobe obscurely marked with luteous; 
pronotum with the anterior and lateral margins and some 
scattered spots on anterior half of disk luteous ; corium with 
base of lateral margin luteous ; scutellum with a small central 
basal spot and the apical margin very narrowly luteous ; 
connexivum luteous, spotted with dark indigo-blue ; membrane 
brassy brown, with its apex hyaline. Body beneath bright 
shining purplish blue; lateral margins of sternum, a spot on 
each side of metasternum, rostrum, coxal spots, bases of femora, 



INSECTA. 249 

apex of spine on anterior femora, a broad central annulation to 
posterior tibiae, central transverse fasciae and marginal spots to 
abdomen, luteous. Antennae and apex of rostrum blackish. 
Long. 13 millim. (W. L. D.) 

Holcostethus obscuratus, sp. n. (Tab. III. fig. 2.) 

Dull obscure castaneous ; head, anterior half of pronotum, 
and basal area of scutellum dull ochraceous ; apex of scutellum 
levigate and pale olivaceous j connexivum luteous, spotted with 
blackish ; membrane black, its apex paler ; body beneath and 
legs very pale olivaceous. Body above thickly, darkly, and 
coarsely punctate ; beneath much more sparsely punctate ; 
femora with two small black spots near apex, and lateral mar- 
gins of abdomen beneath with a series of small black segmental 
spots ; rostrum just passing posterior coxse with its apex black. 
Antennas pale fuscous, basal joint (excluding apex) luteous ; 
second and third joints subequal in length, or second slightly 
shorter than the third. 

Long. 9 millim. 

This species diners from H. scapularis, Thunb., by the spotted 
connexivum, and from H. apicalis, Herr.-Sch., it is distinguished 
by the more elongate body, different colour, &c. (W. L. D.) 

Halyomorpha capitata, sp. n. (Tab. III. fig. 3.) 

Body above ochraceous, thickly and irregularly covered with 
dark punctures. Head with the eyes fuscous, the ocelli red, and 
somewhat thickly covered with coarse brown punctures. Pro- 
notum thickly and coarsely punctate, on each side of disk the 
punctures form obscure oblique fasciae ; lateral margins pale 
ochraceous and impunctate. Scutellum coarsely punctate, 
near lateral margins and before apex the punctures are con- 
fluent and castaneous, apex obscure pale olivaceous with 
scattered dark punctures ; corium thickly, coarsely, and darkly 
punctate, castaneous in hue, excepting lateral margins, which 
are ochraceous ; membrane purplish brown, with a submarginal 
tinge of black ; connexivum ochraceous, with a double series of 
blackish spots at segmental margins. Body beneath and legs 
ochraceous, apical half of rostrum blackish, some small lateral 



250 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

sternal spots, smaller scattered spots on disk of abdomen, small 
stigmatal spots, and a series of marginal spots at segmental 
incisures black. Antennae ochraceous, fourth and fifth joints 
and the apex of third fuscous, bases and apices of fourth and 
fifth joints ochraceous. 

Long. 12-14 millim. 

In this species the head is somewhat long and narrow, a 
character which will alone distinguish it from other species of 
the genus. (W. L. D.) 

Halyomorpha pretorice, sp. n. (Tab. III. fig. 4.) 

Above dull ochraceous, irregularly shaded with dark punc- 
tures ; scutellum with the lateral and apical margins distinctly 
infuscated; corium with the disk more or less castaneous; 
membrane black, shining; connexivum with fuscous spots at 
segmental incisures; body beneath, rostrum, and legs ochra- 
ceous; rostrum with a central line and apex black; lateral 
margins of abdomen obscurely infuscated. Antennae obscure 
brownish; second and third joints subequal in length and 
darkest in hue, fourth and fifth joints also subequal in length, 
fifth joint infuscated at centre. 

Long. 12 millim. (W. L. D.) 

Veterna patula, sp. n. (Tab. III. fig. 5.) 

Body above ochraceous ; basal area of pronotum from between 
lateral angles and corium (excluding lateral margins) purplish 
or olivaceous. Head with the eyes fuscous ; pronotum with four 
black spots near anterior margin, the lateral angles black mar- 
gined with carmine- red ; scutellum with some clusters of dark 
punctures at base, and the same at lateral margins a little before 
apex, which is pale olivaceous ; connexivum spotted with 
fuscous (sometimes immaculate) ; membrane black, shining. 
Body beneath and legs ochraceous, apex of rostrum, apices of 
pronotal angles, stigmata, and some lateral sternal spots black. 
Autennse castaneous, basal joint luteous, fourth and fifth joints 
infuscated ; second joint longest. 

Long. 12 millim., exp. pronot. angl. 8. millim. 

This species is allied to V. pugionata, Stal, by the shape of the 



INSECT A. 251 

pronotal angles, but is broader and without the white spots at 
base of scutellum. (W. L. D.) 

Antestia transvaalia, sp. n. (Tab. III. fig. 6.) 

Above dull ochraceous, somewhat thickly punctured with 
brown. Head with the margins of the central lobe enclosing 
two short central lines at base, the inner margins of the eyes 
and a cluster of punctures near the apex of each lateral lobe, 
black. Pronotum with the posterior area thickly covered with 
coarse black punctures and some scattered punctures on anterior 
area, the punctures form two obscure dark spots on disk; 
anterior and lateral margins and a central longitudinal discal 
line luteous and levigate, a black line on lateral margins near 
the posterior angles. Scutellum thickly covered with black 
punctures; two large spots at base and the apex luteous and 
almost impunctate ; the black punctures become confluent near 
base, and form two obscure spots before apex. Corium thickly 
covered with black punctures, excepting at base of lateral margins 
and an angulated fascia on disk, both of which are luteous and 
levigate. Membrane black, its apical margin hyaline; con- 
nexivum luteous, spotted with black. Body beneath and legs 
luteous ; abdomen with three basal creamy levigate fasciae, the 
second and third interrupted at centre ; rostrum with a central 
line and apex black margins of abdomen spotted with black. 
Antennae mutilated. 

Long. 7 millim. 

This species is allied to A. variegata, Thunb., from which the 
white levigate fasciae on the under surface of the abdomen will 
alone render it very distinct. (W. L. D.) 

Plinachtus falcatus, sp. 11. (Tab. III. fig. 8.) 

Body above and antennae reddish ochraceous ; head with two 
curved black lines extending from base to near emergence of 
antennas ; eyes dark fuscous ; pronotum rugulose, lateral mar- 
gins and apices of spines narrowly black, sub-anterior and sub- 
lateral margins and the spines (excluding apices) red dish, a central 
pale levigate line margined with black punctures, and with some 
scattered black punctures on basal area ; scutellum darkly 



252 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

punctate, its apex black ; corium very darkly punctate, its outer 
margins luteous and levigate, inwardly edged with black ; 
membrane pale testaceous, exhibiting from beneath a black 
spot on each side. Body beneath, legs, and rostrum pale reddish 
ochraceous. 

The second joint of the antennae is longest, and the apical 
joint is somewhat infuscated. 

Long. 11 millim. 

This species may be distinguished by the pronotal spines 
being much less directed forwardly than is usual in the genus, 
and also by the two black spots seen through the membrane 
near apex of abdomen. (W. L. D.) 

Lygtzus planitiae, sp. n. (Tab. III. fig. 7.) 

Body above reddish orange, finely pilose; antennae, eyes, 
central lobe to head, and a large basal spot at inner margin of 
eyes, two large wide discal longitudinal fascise to pronotum 
(strongly constricted anteriorly, fused near anterior margin, 
and connected with lateral margins at base and centre), scu- 
tellum excluding apex, apical half of clavus and claval margin, 
a large discal spot to corium connected with its lateral margin 
for half its length, membrane excluding lateral and apical 
margins, rostrum, coxae, legs, margins and sutures of sternum, 
and sutural fascise to abdomen, black ; margins of membrane 
pale fuscous. 

Long. 10 to 12 millim. (W. L. D.) 

Lygaeus desertus, sp. n. (Tab. III. -fig. 9.) 

Closely allied to L. planitia, but differing by the following 
characters : corium with the lateral and apical margins, a 
broad claval marginal fascia, and a longitudinal fascia extend- 
ing from the base where it is narrowest, to the centre of the 
apical margin where it is broadest, black. Membrane pale 
grey, hyaline, with an irregular reddish spot at the centre of 
basal margin, and a small obscure fuscous spot at inner apical 
margin. 

Long. 10 millim. (W. L. D.) 



INSECTA. 253 

Lyg&us campestris, sp. n. (Tab. III. fig. 10.) 

Body above reddish orange; antennae, eyes, central lobe of 
head, inner margin of eyes, two irregular longitudinal central 
fasciae to pronotum (which become somewhat evanescent 
posteriorly and are united to lateral margin a little beyond 
centre), lateral pronotal margins, scutellum excluding apical 
carina, a small spot near each apical margin of clavus, apical 
margin, posterior half of sublateral margin, and a spot on disk 
of corium, subbasal spot to membrane, sternum, legs, and 
rostrum, black. Membrane pale fuscous, the veins black, and 
a white spot on each side of the subbasal black spot. Extreme 
lateral margins of corium ochraceous; sternum with some 
large greyish- white spots. 

Long. 8 millim. (W. L. D.) 

Transvaalia, gen. nov. 

Ocelli much nearer to eyes than to each other. Body 
elongate; head triangular and convex; pronotum excavated 
anteriorly, its lateral margins and a central longitudinal ridge 
carinate, basal margin with its apices angularly reflexed back- 
wardly and inwardly. Rostrum with the basal joint extending 
a little beyond the base of the head. Scutellum triangular, 
moderately convex, and with a central longitudinal sulcation on 
basal half. Legs long; body above moderately pilose. 

The peculiar structure of the pronotum and scutellum is 
sufficient to easily distinguish this genus. (W. L. D.) 

Transvaalia lugens, sp. n. (Tab. III. fig. 12.) 

Body above shining luteous ; head, antennae, legs, anterior 
area of pronotum, basal margin of scutellum, membrane, 
marginal sutures of pronotum, and apical half of abdomen 
(excluding segmental margins) black; a large furcate spot 
to head above and apex of head beneath, a spot at each 
anterior marginal area of pronotum, and coxal spot carmine- 
red. 

Second joint of the antennae longest, third and fourth sub- 
equal in length. 

Long. 12 millim. (W. L. D.} 



254 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Nysius novitius, sp. n. (Tab. III. fig. 11.) 

Body above ochraceous ; head brownish, with the lateral 
margins, a central longitudinal fascia with a rounded spot on 
each side of disk ochraceous, the ochraceous markings mar- 
gined with black; antennae luteous, the basal and apical joints 
infuscated; eyes blackish. Pronotum coarsely covered with 
brown punctures, the lateral margins luteous and levigate, with 
a double curved linear mark on disk and a spot near posterior 
angle black. Scutellum black, with an irregular luteous mar- 
ginal fascia on each side extending for about half the length 
from base. Corium with scattered coarse punctures, the 
lateral margins impunctate, and with three marginal brown 
spots, one below centre of lateral margin, and one at each 
apex of apical margin. Membrane pale ochraceous. Legs 
ochraceous, apices of femora fuscous, coxa3 luteous; sternum 
strongly punctured with brown ; abdomen beneath blackish. 

Long. 5 millim. (W. L. D.) 

Reduvius pulvisculatus, sp. n. (Tab. II. fig. 3.) 

Body above purplish brown, thickly spotted with greyish 
pile, more thickly on corium than on pronotum. Head, 
antennas, rostrum, anterior lobe of pronotum, scutellum, mem- 
brane, body beneath, femora, and tarsi black ; tibiae red, their 
bases and apices black ; anterior lobe of pronotum thickly 
covered with ochraceous pile ; head more sparingly pilose ; con- 
nexivum above and beneath pale stramineous, slightly spotted 
with brownish at the segmental incisures. 

Long. 20 millim. 

Allied to R. albopunctata, Stal. (W. L. D.) 

Reduvius sertus, sp. n. (Tab. II. fig. 8.) 

Head, antennae, rostrum, scutellum, membrane, body be- 
neath, and legs black ; a large quadrate spot on head extending 
from front of eyes to base of antennae ; pronotum, corium, 
oonnexivum above and beneath, coxae, central area and lateral 
margins of sternum, and a discal patch to abdomen ochraceous. 



1NSECTA. 255 

Anterior lobe of pronotum irregularly and rugosely wrinkled ; 
scutellum deeply and obliquely striated. 

Var. a. Scutellum ochraceous. 

Long. 17 millim. (W. L. D.) 

Reduvius capitalis, sp. n. (Tab. II. fig. 1.) 

Black ; a large quadrate spot on head extending from front 
of eyes to base of antennae, lateral areas of anterior lobe of 
pronotum, angular areas and basal margin of posterior lobe, 
scutellum (excluding basal angles), an angulated fascia to 
corium, connexivum above and beneath, head beneath, cosfe 
and coxal spots, parts of lateral margins of sternum, and 
abdomen beneath sanguineous ; segmental spots to connexivum 
and margins of abdominal segments black ; anterior femora 
annulated with sanguineous. 

Long. 17 millim. (W. L. D.) 

Pirates conspurcatus, sp. n. (Tab. II. fig. 10.) 

Head, antennae, rostrum, pronotum, scutellum, sternum, and 
legs black; corium and abdomen beneath ochraceous; base 
and apex of abdomen black ; membrane, claval area, and 
lateral margins of corium fuscous; a black spot near inner 
angle of corium, a much larger black spot on disk of membrane, 
and a rectangular black spot on claval area. Abdomen above 
ochraceous. 

Long. 10 millim. 

Allied to P. balteatus, Germ. (W. L. D.} 



NEUROPTERA. 

The first signs of returning summer, with warmer nights and 
mornings, were shown by the appearance of Dragonflies hovering 
over the few small ponds to be found near Pretoria. The 
earliest to appear were Orthetrumfasciculata and 0. subfasciolata, 
Crocothemis erythraa, and the gigantic Anax mauricianus , all 
these species being very abundant. Tramea basilaris is very 
rare and I only took or saw one specimen, whose wings were 



256 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

wet after heavy rains and floods. The genus Palpopleura I 
could only find represented by one species (P. jucunda} around 
Pretoria. Ant-lions also are somewhat scarce, frequenting the 
open veld, and I never saw but one species of Palpares 
(P. coffer) in the district of Pretoria, and, at all events, this is 
the dominant and representative species. The time and 
manner of appearance in the winged form of Termes angustatus 
has already been described (ante, p. 49) . 

I received much assistance from Mr. W. F. Kirby in iden- 
tifying the species of Libellulinse, and Mr. E. McLachlan kindly 
named two species of Ant-lions belonging to the collection. 



NEUROPTERA-PLANIPENNIA. 
Fam. MYRMELEONID^E. 

Palpares caffer, Burm. Pretoria. 

Myrmeleon trivirgatus, Gerst. Zoutpansberg. 

Creagrisflavipennis, Burm. Pretoria. 

PSEUDO-NEUROPTERA. 
Fam. TERMITID^. 

Termes angustatus, Eamb. Pretoria. 

Termes, sp. ? Pretoria. 

Fam. LlBELLULIDjE. 

Tramea basilaris, Ramb. Pretoria. 

Palpopleura portia, Dru. Zoutpansberg. 

Palpopleura lucia, Dru. Durban, Natal. 

Palpopleura jucunda, Eamb. Pretoria and Zoutpansberg. 

Sympetrumfonscolombii, Selys. Pretoria and Zoutpansberg. 

Trithemis dorsalis, Eamb. Pretoria. 

Trithemis sanguinolenta, Burm. Pretoria and Zoutpansberg. 

Crocothemis erythraa, Brulle. Pretoria and Zoutpansberg. 

Orthetrum fasciculata, Eamb. Pretoria. 

Orthetrum subfasciolata, Brauer. Pretoria. 



INSECT A. 257 



Subfam. 
Anax mauricianus, Ramb. Pretoria. 

ORTHOPTERA. 

The vast plains of the Transvaal are peopled by myriads of 
insects belonging to this order, and when the summer is 
advanced it is impossible to walk across the veld without putting 
on wing numbers of the smaller species of the Acridiidse, 
particularly the widely distributed Acrida nasuta, and species of 
the genera Paracinema and Catantops. It is this wealth of 
orthopterous life that provides the food for so many birds, and 
their disappearance at the dry season is also the principal 
reason of much bird migration in Southern Africa. 

A few species are on the wing during the winter or dry 
season, and the largest and most brilliant example of these is 
Acridium rubellum, which also has the strongest flight of any 
orthopteron I saw, and when on the wing may easily be mis- 
taken for a small bird. The next prominent insect to appear 
is Phymateus leprosus, which has a very sluggish flight, is 
easily captured, and precedes its generic companion Phymateus 
morbillosus. The most active and high-flying species of Phy- 
mateus is P. squarrosus, which increases in numbers as the 
summer progresses, when the varieties with the pronotum 
concolorous and that with the margins red are both found 
together. Another brilliant species which I found on the 
barest and most sterile veld is (Edalus acutangulus, whose 
blue and black wings make it very conspicuous during flight. 
The vast swarms of Pachytylus migratoroides which visited the 
Transvaal during my stay have already been recorded (ante, 
p. 71), and in the Locustidse the peculiar habits of Clonia 
wahlbergi and Hemisaga prcedatoria have also been described 
(ante, pp. 83 & 65). 

I am much indebted to Mons. Henri de Saussure for much 
valuable assistance in the identification of the species of this 
order. 

Fam, FOBFICULID^B. 

Labidura riparia, Pall. Pretoria. 

Labidura, sp. ? Pretoriai 



258 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

Fam. BLATTID^:. 

Ectobia ericetorum, Wesrn. Pretoria. 

Phyllodromia germanica, Linn. Pretoria. 

Deropeltis erythrocephala, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Nauphteta circumvagens , Burm. Pretoria. 

Derocalymma capucina, Gerst. Pretoria. 

Fam. PHASMID^E. 
Clonaria ? guenzii, Bates. Durban, Natal. 

Fam. MANTID.E. 

Pyrgomantis singularis, Gerst. Pretoria. 

Lygdamia capital a, Sauss. Pretoria. 

Parathespis galeata, Gerst. Pretoria and Zoutpans- 

Miomantis fenestrata, Fabr. Pretoria. [berg. 

Mantis sacra, Thunb. Pretoria. 

Hierodula gastrica, Stal. Pretoria. 

Harpax tricolor, Linn. Pretoria. 

Phyllocrania paradoxa, Burm. Pretoria. 

Fam. GRYLLID^E. 

Gryllotalpa africana, Pal. Beauv. Pretoria. 

Gryllus bimaculatus, De Geer. Pretoria. 

Gryllus leucostomus, Serv. Pretoria. 

Gryllus compactus, Walk. Pretoria. 

(Ecanthos capensis, Sauss. Pretoria. 

Fam. LOCUSTIDJJ. 

Conocephalus mandibularis, Charp. Pretoria. 
Clonia wahlbergi, Stal. Waterberg. 

Hetnisaya pradatoria, Distant, sp. n. (fig. ante, p. 63). 

? . Ochraceous, disk of abdomen and ovipositer testaceous, 
apical area of abdomen greenish ; head with two faint black 
central longitudinal lines, continued more distinctly along the 
whole length of the pronotum and abdomen. Lateral furrowed 
margin of pronotum white and somewhat bifasciate, with its 
inner edge narrowly black; lateral margins of meso- and 



INSECT A. 259 

metanotum white ; lateral margins of abdomen with a narrow 
white fascia, inwardly testaceous and outwardly black. Wings 
quite rudimentary and greenish ochraceous. 

Anterior femora a little longer in length than head and 
pronotum together and armed with ten spines on each side ; 
anterior tibiae with eight spines on each side; intermediate 
femora with nine spines on inner under margin, and ten 
shorter spines on outer under margin ; intermediate tibiae 
with ten or eleven spines on each side ; posterior femora with 
a double series of short spines beneath, but not reaching 
apical area. 

Long, from apex of head to apex of ovipositor 76 millim. ; 
pronot. 7; head 5; ovipositor 28; ant. femora 13; post. 
femora 38. Pretoria. 

Differs from H. hastata, the only other described species of 
the genus, both as regards the different markings and the pro- 
portional measurements. 



Fam. 

Acrida nasuta, Linn. Pretoria. 

Acrida turrita, Linn., var. calaata, Sauss. Pretoria. 

Mesops abbreviates, Pal. Beauv. Zoutpansberg. 

Parga gracilis, Burm. Pretoria. 

Phymateus leprosus, Fabr. Pretoria. 

Phymateus morbillosus, Linn. Pretoria. 

Phymateus squarrosus, Linn. Pretoria. 

Ochrophlebia ligneola, Serv. Pretoria. 

Maura rubro-ornata, Stal. Pretoria. 

Taphronota porosa, Stal. Pretoria. 

Petasia spumans, Thunb. Pretoria. 

, var. ater, Dist. (Tab. IV. fig. 3.) 

Black ; anterior and posterior margins of thorax above, 
interior area of wings, basal halves of anterior and interme- 
diate femora, tibise excluding bases and apices, tarsi excluding 
apices, and the palpi bright coralline red. Pretoria. 

Porthetis cimrascens, Stal. Pretoria. 

Porthetis griseus, Serv. Pretoria. 



260 



A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 



Xiphocera distanti, sp. n. 
Xiphocera picta, sp. n. 
Acridium ruficorne, Fabr. 
Acridium hottentottum, Stal. 
Acridium tataricum, Linn. 
Acridium rubellum, Serv. 
Catantops humeralis, Thuub. 
Catantops sulphureus, Walk. 
Calliptenus crassus, Walk. 
Calliptenus pallidicornis, Stal. 
Pezotettix capensis, Thunb. 
Chrotogonus meridionalis , sp. n. 
Paracinema tricolor, Thunb. 
Paracinema basalis, Walk. 
Pycnodictya obscura, Linn. 
Pycnodictya adustum, Walk. 
Cosmorhyssa fasciata, Thunb. 
Pachytylus migrator -aides, Reiche. 
Pachytylus lucasii, Brunn. 
(Edalus plena, Walk. 
(Edalus marmoratus, Thunb., var. 
(Edalus acutangulus, Stal. 
(Edalus nigro-fasciatus, Charp. 
(Edalus citrinus, Sauss. 
Humbella tenuicornis, Schaum. 
Heteropternis hyalina, Sauss. 
Tmetonota sabra, Sauss. 
Trilophidia annulata, Thunb. 
Acroiylus flavescens, Stal. 



Pretoria. 

Waterberg. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Zoutpansberg. 

Pretoria and Zoutpans- 

Pretoria. [berg. 

Durban, Natal. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Zoutpansberg. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Zoutpansberg. 

Pretoria. 

Zoutpansberg. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 

Pretoria. 



Descriptions. 
(By Mons. H. DE SAUSSURE.) 

Familia PAMPHAGID^E. 
Genus Xiphocera, Latr., Stal, Saussure. 

The two species which follow belong to the group of 
X. mannulus, Saussure, having filiform antennae, not dilated. 



INSECT A. 261 

(Comp. H. de Saussure, ' Spicilegia entomologica Genevensis/ 
ii. 1887, p. 33.) 

They differ from that species and from others of the same 
group by their strongly compressed body, and can be distin- 
guished from one another as follows : 
. The crest of pronotum having three ovoid pellucid fenestrse, 

very distinct ; the crest entire to its apex. X. distanti. 
b. The crest of pronotum having but small pellucid fenestrae, 

obsolete ; the crest crenulated at its apex. X. picta. 

Xiphocera distanti, Saussure, sp. n. (Tab. IV. fig. 1.) 

Fusco-grisea, valde compressa, crasse granulata. Antennse 
filiformes, 15-16-articulatae, superne totse obsolete, subtus 
articulis 6 primis planatse. Articuli omnes depressi, extus 
acuti, facie interna angusta subrotundata, baud marginata; 
articuli 7 apicales submoniliformes. 

Caput confertim, inter carinas laterales sparse, granulatum. 
Vertex vix declivis, a latere rectangulatus ; ejus scutellum 
breve, excavatum, antice rectangulatum, marginibus valde 
prominulis, postice rotundatum. Ejus carinulae laterales 
incisse, angulis incisurse rotundatis, haud crenatis. Costa 
facialis a latere parum incisa. 

Pronotum utrinque inferius dense granulosum. Crista ele- 
vata, lamellaris, supra occiput valde acutangulatim producta 
(Sauss. /. c. pi. ii. fig. 7) ; ejus linea dorsalis a latere in 
medio vix, autice et postice magis arcuata (Sauss. /. c. pi. iii. 
fig. 23) ; ejus pars postica valde producta, nee sinuata nee 
crenata, apice acuto, bidentato. Sulci 3 in crista profundi 
ac fenestrati, impressiones profundas, ovatas, diaphanas 
majores obferentes. Pars dorsalis prouoti verruculosa ac 
sparse acute granosa. Pedes graciles, antice haud granulati, 
sed extus carinati. Femora postica haud late dilatata, ante 
concha apicali coarctata (Sauss. /. c. pi. iii. fig. 20), cristis 
parum latis, supra 9-spinosa, infra irregulariter denticulata. 

Abdorninis segmenta l m -6 m superne ante apicem spina trigonali 
armata. 

$ . Long. 46 millim., pronot. 16, fern. post. 16. 
Pretoria, 1 ? . 

Xiphocera picta, Saussure, sp. n. (Tab. IV. fig. 2.) 
Statura et forma sensim ut in X. distanti; corpore toto 
sabuloso, excepto in parte apicali abdominis ; colore fusco, 
valde albo et flavido strigato. Antennse 16-articulatse, de- 
plan ato-prismaticse, supra planse, subtus articulis 3-8 in 



262 A NATURALIST IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

medio carinatis ; 7 ultimis submoniliformibus, angulo externo 
prominulo. Scutelli verticis margines laterales incisi ac 
crenulati. Pronoti crista quam in X. distanti minus arcuata, 
apice crenata. Sulci 3 in ilia minus impressi, lineares, fenestris 
parum translucidis, minoribus. Pars dorsalis tuberculis 
minutis dentiformibus conspersa; crista confertini granulata 
vel verruculosa, rugosissima; lobi laterales sparse nigro- 
verruculati, margine postico minute denticulate. Femora 
postica albida, fusco 3-fasciata, necnon area inferiore albo 
4-maculata; margo superior spinis trigonalibus fortibus 
armatuSj genu spina apicali armato; margo inferior valde 
denticulatus. Segmenta abdominis omnia superne dente 
acuto praapicali armata. 

Pictura : Facies albo et nigro marmorata. Corpus utrinque 
linea albida callosa, interrupta, percurrente, ornatum. Lobi 
laterales pronoti lineis albis irregularibus, crista et dorsum 
vittis albis obliquis, descendentibus, notata. Metathorax 
utrinque inferius vittis 2 albis et superius vitta obliqua in 
1 abdominis segmento perducta. Corpus subtus pallidum. 

? . Long. 36 millim., pronot. 16, fern. post. 15. 
Waterberg. 

Familia PYRGOMORPHID^:. 

Chrotogonus meridionalis, Saussure, sp. n. (Tab. IV. fig. 5.) 

Gracilis, fulvo-griseus, fusco-umbratus ; pedibus fusco-fasciatis. 
Costa facialis a latere visa tenuiter sinuata, haud angulatim 
incisa. Verticis rostrum sat prominulum, parabolicum, 
oculos plus quam dimidia latitudine superans. Pronotum 
margine postico transverso, arcuato, haud lobato, tuber- 
culis nigris 5. Prozona supra tenuiter tuberculosa; ejus 
partes 3 sequales. Metazona tantum rare tuberculata ac 
subtiliter granulata. Lobi laterales fere rectangulatim de- 
flexi, angulo postico rectangulo vel leviter retro-producto, 
haud lobato. Elytra angustissima, abdominis apicem attin- 
gentia, nigro-punctata, seriebus tuberculorum nullis; area 
costali parum dilatata. Alee nigrae. 

? . Long. 21 millim., pronot. 4, fern. 9, elytr. 15, latit. 3. 

This species is characterized by its narrow form, by its elytra 
being narrow and not tuberculated, and by its pronotum having 
the hind border not angulated, but only arcuated, and less 
than in Chr. hemipterus. 

Zoutpansberg. 



INDEX, 



Abacetus obtusus, 188. 
Acacia mollissima, 115. 
Acanthogenius dorsalis, 188. 
Acanthocoris lugens, 246. 
Acanthorrhinus dreyei, 200. 
Acariote, 126, 179. 

Found under stones in Trans- 
vaal, 179. 

Loss to live-stock in Natal, 126. 
Accidents common to all animal life, 

55. 

Aclwenops fadalis, sp. n., 204. 
Acharana otreusalis, 241. 
Acherontia atropos, 18, 68, 153, 236. 
Acidalia gazella, 240. 
Acrcea anemosa, 233. 

buxtoni, 233. 

caldarena, 233. 

doubledayi, 233. 

encedon, 233. 

horta, 232. 

natalica, 123, 233. 

neobule, 233. 

nohara, 233. 

rahira, 233. 

violwum, 233. 

Acrida nasuta, 259. 

turrita, var. cal&ata, 259. 

Acridium hottentottum, 260. 

rubellum, 260. 

ruficorne, 260. 

tataricum, 260. 

Aa-otylusjlavescens, 260. 
Adaliaflavomaculata, 209. 
Adoretus luteipes, 47, 192. 
AZgialitis asiaticus, 169. 
tricollaris, 169. 



^Enidea pretorice, sp. n., 206, 209. 

dEthriostoma yloriosa, 190. 
Agama atricoUis, 174. 
^zd, 87, 173, 174. 

Habits under stones, 87. 
Aglossa basalts, 241. 
Agonoscelis erosa, 246. 

puberula, 246. 

versicolor, 246. 

Ayrotis biconica, 238. 
Alfsmon nivosa, 168. 
Alcena amazoula, 234. 
Alcides sene.r, 200. 
Alesia indusa, 209. 
Aliteus adspersus, 195. 
Aloes, 45. 

Amblyomma hebrceum, 179. 
Amblysterna vittipennis, 195. 
Amiantus gibbosus, 199. 

nndosus, sp. n., 199. 

Ammophila bones spei, 211. 
Ampkidesmus analis, 196, 201. 
Ampules niffi-o-Cfenilea, sp. n., 211, 

212. 

Amydrus morio, 164, 167. 
Anace lateritia, 237. 
Anax mauriciamis, 45, 257. 
Ancylopus fuscipennis, sp. n., 210. 
Anisorhina Jlavomaculata, var. eyre- 

^a, 194. 
Anomalipes complanatus, 199. 

intermedius, 199. 

te/jpa, 199. 

variolosus, 199. 

Anoplochilus tomentosus, 194. 
Anoplocnemis curvipes, 46, 246. 
, 236. 



264 



INDEX. 



Antestia transvaalia, sp. n.. 246, 251. 
Anthia cequilatera, 188. 

desertorum, 188. 

maxillosa, 50, 187, 188. 

mellyi, 188. 

tJioracica, 50, 187, 188. 

Anthocomus, sp., 198. 
Anthrojyoides paradisea, 50, 168. 
Antipus rufus, 204. 
Ant-lion, 91. 
Anubis mellyi, 201. 
ApMia apolinaris, 123, 238. 
Aphodius lividus, 152, 191. 
Aplasta dichroa, 194. 
Apples in Natal, 126. 

Devastated by Cetoniid beetles, 

115, 126, 193. 

Aquila ivahlbergi, 163, 165. 
Arachnida, 179. 
Araneae, 180. 
Argentiferous wealth near Pretoria, 

59. 
Argiope nigrovittata, 180. 

Arthileta cloeckneria, 236. 

Asbecesta cyanipennis, 206. 
Asio capensis, 112, 165. 

Feeding on large coleoptera, 112. 

Aspilocoryphus fasciativentris, 247. 

Aspongopus japetus, 246. 

nubilus, 246. 

Astur polyzonoides, 165. 

Atella columbina, 233. 

Athalia bicolor, sp. n., 211, 226. 

Atractonotmformicarius, 187, 188. 

Attagenus, sp., 190. 

Aty lotus, sp., 244. 

Aulacophora vinula, 206. 

Aulonogyrus abdominalis, 45, 189. 

Auriferous deposits absent at Pre- 
toria, 59. 

Austen, Ernest E., 244. 

"Australian bug," 88. 

Aves, 162, 163. 

The Transvaal avifauna already 
well worked, 163. 

Axylia cinctothoraa.; 233. 



Azanus tesous, 234. 

Bagrada hilaris, 246. 
Bamboos, 121. 
Bananas, 121, 125. 
Basipta stolida, 209. 
Bates, H. W., ix, 41, 187. 
Beach Wood at Durban, 123. 
Belmogaster rufipennis, 210. 
Berea at Durban, 122. 
Berg bas," 43. 
Biggarsberg, 9. 
Binna linea, 237. 

madagascariensis, 70, 2-7. 

Attacked by Cape Wagtail, 70. 
Birds of prey around Pretoria, 55. 
Their extremely fat condition, 

57. 

Blue Cranes, 50. 
Blufi nt Durban, 122. 
Boers, 20. 

As soldiers, 32. 
Farmers, 21, 22. 
Physical appearance, 35. 
Sobriety, 36. 
Theology, 23, 26, 33. 
Treatment of Kafirs, 24. 
Want of gaiety, 36. 
Boers and English, 35, 90, 147, 

148. 

Boer War, 10, 31, 32, 140. 
Bolloceras batesii, sp. n., 191. 
Boom, great, the, 145. 
Boulenger, G. A., 173. 
Bourgeois, Mons. J., 196. 
Bowker, Colonel, 41, 121. 
Brachinus armiger, 188. 
Brachycerus apterus, 200. 

cancellatm, 200. 

natalensis, 200. 

Bracon fastidiator, 211. 

flagrator, 211. 

Bradyornis silens, 167. 
Bubulcus ibis, 169. 
Bufo car ens, 176. 
regularis, 48, 176. 



INDEX. 



265 



Buteo desertorum, 56, 163, 165. 

jakal, 112, 163, 165. 

Butler, A. G., 235. 

Butterflies, 5, 39, 40, 46, 61, 91, 112, 

121, 123. 
Buzzards, 57, 80, 112. 

Instinctive terror of these birds 
possessed by poultry, 57. 

Ccenina pcecilaria, 240. 
Ctenomorpha nervosa, 245. 
Calkida angustuta, 188. 
Callidea nataknsis, 245. 
Calliphora marffinalis, 244. 
Calliptenus crassus, 260. 

pallidicoi-nis, 260. 

Callistomimus sexpustulatus, 187, 

188. 

Calomorpha wdhlberyi, 205. 
Calpe apicalis, 237. 
Camponotus grandidieri, 211. 
Camptolenes cribraria, 204. 
Candeze, Dr. E., 195. 
Cam's mesomclas, 111. 
Canna indica, 18. 
Cantharsius, sp., 191. 
Cape Town, 4. 

Malay population, 5. 
Museum, 5. 

Carbula trisiynata, 246. 
Cardiophorus prcetnorsus, 195. 
Carebara vidua, 211. 
Cassida hybrida, 209. 

/wntfa, 209. 

punctata, 209. 

smpta, 209. 

Castalius mekena, 234. 

Castellated residence in Zoutpans- 

berg, 96. 
Catantops humeralis, 260. 

sulphureus, 260. 

Catochrysops osiris, 233. 
Catopsiliajlorella, 46, 234. 
Caura rufiventris, 246. 
Causus rhotubeatus, 176. 
Cephalolophus grimmii, 111, 159. 



Cerchneis amwensis, 112, 165. 
Feeds on Orthoptera, 112. 

- rupicola, 128, 165. 

- rupicoloides, 165. 

- tinnunculoides, 112, 165. 
Feeds on Orthoptera, 112, 164. 

Ceropksis bieincta, 202. 

- brachyptera, 202. 

- capensis, var. n., 202, 203. 
Cervicapra arundinum, 159. 
Cetonia cincta, 194. 
Cetoniids, 66, 92, 123, 193. 
Chalcogenia cuprea, 195. 
Chameeleon parvilobus, 174. 
Champion, J. C., 198. 
Charlestown, 119, 120. 
Cheraprogne, 50, 167. 

Nuptial plumage a hindrance to 

flight, 50. 
Sexual selection exercised at the 

expense of protection, 164. 
Chtttusia coronata, 169. 
CMcenius cylindricollis, 188. 

- subsulcatus, 188. 

- vitticollis, 187, 188. 
Chlorion xanthocerum, 210. 
Chcerocampa nerii, 18. 



Chrotogonus meridionalis, sp. n., 260, 

262. 

Chrysis (Pyrin) lynica, 211. 
Chrysococcyx cupreus, 164. 
Chrysomela opulenta, 206. 
Chrysorychia amanga, 234. 
Cicadas, 67. 
Cidaria pudicata, 240. 
Cigaritis leroma, 234. 
Cimex figuratus, var. n., 245, 248. 
Circus pygargus, 152, 163, 165. 
Cleonus, sp., 200. 
Oeitos ochraceus, 246. 
Clivina grandis, 188. 
Clonaria ? guenzii, 258. 
Cforaa wahlbergi, 84, 258. 
Clytanthus capensis, 201. 
C/y^Ara wahlbergi, 204. 



266 



INDEX. 



Coaching, 9. 

Coccinellidae, 66, 209. 

Colasposoma pubescens, 205. 

Coleoptera, 152, 187. 
After the rains, 50. 
Difficult to obtain, 92. 
On leaves after rain, 123. 
Under stones, 39. 

Colias. electra, 39, 234. 

Colley, General, his grave, 11. 

Colonial settlers in the Transvaal, 
134. 

Their great value to the State, 
135. 

Colonist, an old, 90. 

Colotes, sp., 198. 

Colours of animals fixed by natural 
selection during the great struggle 
for existence subsequent to the 
last geological change of surface, 
76. 

Colpoon compressum, 42, 77. 

Columba phaonota, 168. 

Commercial morality, 137. 

prosperity of the Transvaal 

retarded by want of railway com- 
munication,. 130, 138. 

Company promoter, the, 127, 138. 

Comparison of social life and politics 
in the Transvaal and Britain, 
86. 

C'ompsomera elegantissima, 201. 

Conocephalus mandibularis, 258. 

Convolvulus, a fine, 96. 

Copridae, their flight, 190. 

Copris contracttts, 191. 

Julius, 191. 

Coptomia umbrosa, 123, 193. 

Coptorhina klugii, 191. 

Coracias caudata, 80, 112, 166. 

Corvus scapulatu-s, 96, 167. 

Corynetes ruftcollis, 152, 198. 

rvfipes, 152, 198. 

Corynodes compressicornis, 205. 

Cosmorhyssa fasciata, 260. 

Cossypha caffra, 166. 



1 Crania, belonging to the Makapan 
tribe, descriptions of, 157. 

Creagris Jlavipennis, 256. 

Crepidoyaster bimaculatus, 187, 188. 

Crioceris const ricticollis, 204. 

puncticollis, 204. 

Crocidura martensii, 159. 

pilosa, 159. 

Crocodile, mythical reports as to, 
78. 

Crocothemis erythnea, 45, 256. 

Crossotus kluffii, sp. n., 202, 203. 

Orothama decor ata, sp. n., 237. 

Cryptocephalus decemnotalus, 204. 

dregei, 204. 

pardalis, 204. 

pustulatus, 204. 

Cursorius chalcopterus, 169. 

senegalensis, 169. 

Cyclopides willemi, 235. 

Cydonia lunata, 209. 

quadrttineata, 209. 

Cyligramma latona, 238. 

Cynictis penicillata, 159. 

Cypholoba ranzanii, 187, 188. 

Cyphonistes vallatus, 193. 

Cyphononyx antennata, sp. n., 211, 
217. 

Danais chrysippus, 39, 61, 232. 

Devoured by Hetnisaga prceda- 

toria, 65. 

Its varieties alcippus and dorip- 
pus found at Pretoria, 65, 232. 
Decimia bicolorata, 237. 
Deiopeia pulchella, 68, 153, 237. 

In flight mistaken for a Ly- 

ccenid, 68. 

Its wide distribution, 68. 
Dendritic or arborescent markings 

in quartzite, 58. 
Dendropicus cardinalis, 166. 
Dermantinus limbifer, 247. 

lugens, 247. 

Dermestes vulpinus, 152, 190. 
Derocalymma capucina, 258. 



INDEX. 



267 



Deropeltis erythrocephala, 258. 
Destruction of birds by floods, 91. 
Diceros algoensis, 193, 194. 

, \&r. Jlavtpennis, 193, 194. 

Dichelocephala lanceulata, 246. 
Dichelus vulpinus, 192. 
Dichtha cubica, 198, 199. 
Dieuches armipes, 247. 

patruelis, 247. 

Diplognatha hebraa, 50, 194. 

silicea, 194. 
Diptera, 46, 67, 244. 
Discolia caffra, 211. 

prcecana, sp. n., 211, 222. 

prcestabilis, sp. 11., 211, 222. 

Disnwyistusfonbriatus, 245. 
Distantella, gen. n., 229. 

trinotata, sp. n., 211, 230. 

Dopper Church, 27. 
Dorylus helvolus, 211. 
Dragonflies, 45, 54, 112. 
Dresser. H. E., 165. 
Dromica gigantea, 187. 
Durban, 8, 121. 

Beach Wood, 123. 

Berea, the, 122. 

Bluff, the, 122. 

Museum, 121. 

Pleasures of the naturalist at, 

124. 

Durrant, J. Hartley, 235, 242. 
Dust-storm, 47. 
"Duyker," the, 111. 
Dwaas River, 97, 112. 
Dynamite, 58, 89, 120. 

East London, 8. 
Ectobia ericetorum, 153, 258. 
Edocla quadrisignata, 248. 
Egybolia vaillantina, 122, 237. 
Elanus cceruleus, 163, 165. 
ElapJiinis irrorata, 123, 194. 

latecostata, 123, 194. 
Eiasmopoda undata, 246. 
Eletica rufa, 198, 199. 
Elis barbata, 211, 223. 



Epilaclma bifasciata, 209. 

dregei, 209. 

hirta, 209. 

Epizeuxis cethiops, sp. n., 239. 
Equus quagga, 75. 
Eremias lineo-ocellata, 174. 
Eriesthis gidtata, 192. 

semihirta, 192. 

Eronia Ma, 123, 234. 
Estrelda astrild, 107. 
Eubolla deei'cana, 240. 
proxaulkaria, 240. 

punicaria, 240. 

Eucalyptus, 17. 
Euchromia africcma, 123, 236. 
Euclasta war rent, sp. n., 241. 
Euleptus caffer, 188. 
Eumenes tinctor, 210. 
Euphorbia, 45, 80. 

Poisonous qualities, 80. 
Eupoda, 203. 

Habits, 203. 

Euporus callichromoides, 201 . 
Euryope terminalis, 205. 
Eurytela hiarbas, 233. 
Exochomus nigromaculatus, 152, 209. 
Exocostus lineatus, 3. 

Falco ruficollis, 164, 165. 

Farm, Natal model, 126. 

Farmer, British, wanted in the 
Transvaal, 138. 

Farmers, Boer, 21, 22, 34, 45, 113. 
Great want of education, 133, 
138. 

Floods, and loss of life, 53, 60, 78, 
88, 129. 

Flowers, common English, culti- 
vated in the Transvaal, 18. 

Flying-fish, 3. 

Francolinus gariepensis, 112, 168. 
levaillantii, 75, 112, 168. 
Protective coloration, 75. 

subtorquatus, 112, 168. 

Gahan, C. J., 201, 204, 206. 



268 



INDEX. 



Galerucidte, 66, 206. 

Gametis balteata, 194. 

Gastracantha, sp., 180. 

Gellia angulicollis, 246. 

Geological features around Pretoria, 

58. 

Gerrhosaurus Jlavigularis, 174. 
Gill, G. D., 94. 
Gladstone, Mr., name of, in the 

Transvaal, 140. 
Glareola melanoptera, 169. 
Glaucidium perlatum, 165. 
Glaucoma distanti, sp. n., 175. 
Glypsus conspictms, 245. 

mcestus, 245. 

" Gom Paauw," 74. 
Gomphocarpus, sp., 62, 66. 
Gonodela amandata, 240. 
Gorgophis libania, 238. 
Gorham, Rev. H. S., 197. 
Graphipterus cordiger, 188. 

ovatus, 188. 

westwoodi, 188. 

Grass-fires, 21, 46, 114. 
Gryttotdlpa africana, 258. 
Gryllus bimaculatus, 258. 

compactus, 258. 

leucostomus, 258. 

Guinea-fowl, 13, 72. 
Gymnopleunis ccelatus, 191. 

wahlbergi, 191. 

Gynandrophthalma anisogramma, 

204. 

Gynanisa maia, 238. 
Gyps Jcolbii, 69, 163, 165. 

Hailstones forming blocks of ice, 53. 
Halitonoma epistomata, 204. 
Halyomorpha capitata, sp. n., 245, 
249. 

p-etoria, sp. n., 246, 250. 

Hamanumida dtedalus, 40, 41, 233. 
Haritala quaternalis, 241. 
Harpalus capicokt, 188. 
Harpax tricolor, 258. 
Hecyrida terrea, 202. 



Hedybius amcenus, sp. n., 197. 
Heidelberg, 117. 
Heliocopris hamadryas, 191. 
Helioryctes melanopyrus, 210. 
Hemaris hylas, 236. 
Hemipimpla, 227. 

caffra, sp. n., 211, 227. 

calliptera, sp. n., 211, 228. 

Hemisaya prcedatoria, sp. n., 65, 258. 

Devours Danais chrysippus, 65. 
Herpania eriphia, 91, 234. 
Hesperia forestan, 235. 
Heterocera, 235. 

Habits &c., 230. 
Heterocorax capensis, 167. 
Heteroderes inscriptus, 195. 
Heteromera, 67, 198. 

Habits of, 198. 
Heteronychus, sp., 193. 
Heteroptera, 244. 
Heteropternis hyalina, 260. 
Hibiscus, 18, 125. 
Hierodula gastrica, 258. 
Himatismus buprestoides, 199. 
Hindu race at Durban, 8. 
Hippobosca riifipes, 244. 
Hipporhinus corniculatus, 200. 

cornutus, 200. 

pilularius, 200. 

Hirundo cucullata, 167. 

semirufa, 167. 

Ifi'sier co^e;-, 190. 

fossor, 190. 

hottentotta, 190. 

ovatula, 190. 

Holcostethus obscuratus, sp. n., 245, 

249. 

Hollanders, 35, 134, 135, 148. 
Homceocerus annulatus, 246. 

magnicorniS) 246. 

Homonotus ccerulans, sp. n., 211, 213. 

pedestris, sp. n., 211, 214. 

Homoptera, 243. 

Honey poisonous, when derived from 

bloom of Euphorbias, 80. 
Hoplostomus fuligineus, 194. 



INDEX. 



269 



Hoploterna valga, 246. 
Horse-sickness, 95. 
Humbella tenuicornis, 260. 
Hybosorus arator, 191. 
Hydrous, sp., 189. 
Hymenoptera, 67, 210. 
Hypanis ilithyia, 46, 233. 
Hyperacantha oculata, 206. 
Hyphantornis velatus, 167. 
Hypolimnas misippus, 65, 233. 
Hypolithus, sp., 188. 
Hypseloyenia concava, 193. 
Hystrichopus coffer, 188. 

Icerya purchasi, 88. 

Illicit diamond-buying, 138. 

Insects protected from their enemies 
by mimicry or protective resem- 
blance frequently thus survive some 
incipient mortality which would 
have otherwise helped to effect 
their extinction, 62. 

lolaus boivkeri, 234. 

Iron-work among the Mavenda 
Kafirs, 107. 

Ischnostoma nasuta, 193. 

Islam, a Priest of, 117. 

Jackal, the, 111. 

Jacoby, Martin, 204. 

Janson, Oliver, 193. 

Jews in the Transvaal, 36, 135. 

Financial ability, 136. 

Their cosmopolitanism and 
gaiety, 137. 

Their knowledge of the country, 

136. 
Johannesburg, 13, 116. 

Absence of trees, 116. 

Hotels, 117. 

Most English town in the 

Transvaal, 138. 
" Jumping hare," 75. 
Junonia boopis, 233. 

cebrene, 40, 233. 

clelia, 233. 



Kafir and Boer, 22, 24, 25, 81, 98. 
Kafir labour, 22, 24, 98, 104, 140. 

Distance travelled to work, 99. 

Manual labour at present de- 
pendent on, 141. 

Work to procure money to obtain 

another wife, 99. 
Kafir stores and Kafir traders, 97. 

Solitary life, 97. 
Kestrels, 112, 163. 
Kirby, W. F., 235, 256. 
Kriiger, S. J. P., President, 28, 33, 82. 

Labidura riparia, 153, 257. 

Ladysmith, 121. 

Lcelia adspersa, 237. 

Lagria, sp., 199. 

Laings Nek, 11, 120. 

Railway tunnel, 120. 

Lamprocolius sycobius, 164, 167. 

Lamprophis rufulus, 176. 

Laniarius atrococcineus, 167. 

ffutturalis, 167. 

Lanius collaris, 55, 167. 

collurio, 167. 

Larra ornata, 210. 

Lebeda aculeata, 237. 

Lebia, sp., 188. 

Lepidoptera, 153, 231. 

Leptodira rufescens, 176. 

Leptosoma apicalis, 123, 236. 

Leucania amens, 238. 

apparata, 238. 

percussa, 238. 

substituta, 238. 

Lewis, George, 190. 

Life on the table-lands compared 
with that on the sea, 59. 

Lion, probably in the Transvaal con- 
fined to Zoutpansberg, 157. 

Liquor, love of, by Kafirs, 102. 

Lithosia ? fumeola, 237. 

Litopus dispar, 201. 

lAxus, sp., 200. 

L'ocris arithmetica, 248. 

transversa, 248. 



270 



INDEX. 



Locust chased by dogs, 39. 

eaten by Kafirs, 72. 

eaten by poultry and bustards, 

72. 

impaled on barbed wire, 55. 

swarm, 71. 

Longicornia, 201. 
Habits &c., 201. 

Lophoceros kucomelas, 164, 166. 

Lophonotus, sp.,244. 

Lost in the wood-bush, 91. 

Luciola capensis, 197. 

Lyc&nesthes liodes, 234. 

Lycauges donovani, sp. n., 240. 

Lycus ceolus, 196. 

ampliatus, 196. 

bremet, 123, 196. 

constrictus, 196. 

dilatatus, 196. 

distanti, sp. n., 196. 

integripennis, 196. 

kolbei, 196. 

pyriformis, 196. 

rostrattts, 196. 

subtrabeatus, 196. 

zonatus, 196. 

Lygaidai, 45, 67, 247. 

Lygceosoma villosula, 247. 

Lygceus campestris, sp. n., 247, 253. 

desertus, sp. n., 247, 252. 

eleyans, 247. 

planitiee, sp. n., 247, 252. 

rivvlaris, 247. 

septw, 247. 

trilineatus, 247. 

Lyffdamia capitata, 258. 

Maluia striata, 174. 

trivittata, 87, 173, 174. 

Great resemblance to snake 
when curled up, 87. 

Inhabit holes with toads, 87. 
Machetes puynax, 169. 
Machla porcella, 199. 
MacLachlan, R., 256. 
Macruylussa trochilus, 236. 



Macroma coynata, 194. 
Macronyx capensis, 164, 168. 
Magato, chief of the Makatese, 107. 
Magwambas, the, 100. 
Dress, 101. 

Funeral dances &c., 102. 
Killing an ox and great dance, 

102. 

Love of strong liquor, 102. 
Number in the Spelonken, 101. 
Originally refugees from sur- 
rounding districts, 100. 
Maiden-hair ferns, 45. 
Maize cultivated by Kafirs, 83. 
Majuba Hill, 10, 90, 120, 128, 135. 
Makapan's Cave, 82, 84. 

Immense slaughter of Kafirs, 

82. 

Kafirs blockaded by Boers, 82. 
Makapan's Poort, 81. 

Scene of murder by Kafirs in 

1854, 81. 
Makatese, the, 107. 

Location in the Spelonken, 107. 
Malacodermata, 196. 
Malays at Cape Town, 5. 
Mamestra breviuscula, 238. 

renisigna, 238. 

Mammalia, 152, 157. 
Mangoes, 125. 

Man's development of the Transvaal 
a struggle with the different forces 
and agents of Nature, 89. 
Manticora tuberculata, 50, 187. 
Mantis sacra, 258. 
Maritzburg=Pieterniaritzburg, 121, 

127. 

Mashonaland trek, 85. 
Maura rubro-ornata, 259. 
Mavendas, the, 107. 

Iron-smelting and iron manu- 
facture, 107. 

Making a pick or hoe, 108. 
Megachile maxillosa, 210. 
Megalonychus inter stitialts, 188. 
Melaniti's leda, 232. 



INDEX. 



271 



Melinesthes umbonata, 194. 
Melittophagus meridionalis, 108. 
Melybaus crassus, 195. 
Men who early in life visit South 

Africa seldom finally leave it, 87, 

138, 139. 

Mcnius distant^ sp. n., 205. 
Merops apiaster, 44, 152, 166. 
Mesa diapherogamia, sp. n., 211, 225. 
Mesops abbreviatus, 259. 
Micranterus validus, 199. 
Microstylum dispar, 244. 
Milvus cegyptius, 56, 165. 
Mimicry, 41, 66, 92. 
Mimosa-bark, 116. 
Miomantis fenestrata, 253. 
Mirperus jaculus, 246. 
Mist and fog, 116. 
Monitor, the, 77, 87, 174. 
Monochelus, sp., 192. 
Monoleptajlaveola, 206. 
Monticola brevipes, 166. 
Morcegamus globiceps, 202. " 
Motacilla capensis, 49, 70, 164, 168. 
Attacking a moth, 70. 
Pursuing species of Acrcea, 70. 
Moths flying to light, 122. 
Mus concha, 159. 

rattus, 162, 159. 

(Isomys) pumilio, 159. 

Musca domestica, 244. 
Museum at Cape Town, 5. 

at Durban, 121. 

at Port Elizabeth, 8. 

Mutilla albistyla, sp. n., 211, 225. 

tetensis, 211. 

Mycalesis perspicua, 232. 
Mygnimia belzebuth, sp. n., 211, 218. 

depressa, sp. n., 211, 219. 

distanti, sp. n., 211, 220. 

fallax, sp. n., 211, 221. 

Mylabris capensis, 199. 

ffrondali, 199. 

lunata, 199. 

mixta, 199. 

ophthalmica, 92, 199. 



Mylabris transversalis, 126, 199. 

tristiffma, 199. 

Mylothris agathina, 234. 
Myoxus murimis, 159. 
Myriopoda, 181. 
Myrmecocichlaformicivora, 166. 
Myrmeleon tnvirgatus, 256. 

Nanotrayus scoparius, 159. 

Nassunia bupaliata, 240. 

Native commissioners and treatment 

of Kafirs, 98. 

Nauphceta circumvagens, 258. 
Nectar inia famosa, 166. 
Nemognatha, 199. 
Nephila transvaalica, sp. n., 91, 179, 

180. 

Small colonies living in gigantic 

webs, 91, 179. 
Neptis agatha, 233. 
Nerium oleander, 18. 
Neuroptera, 255. 

Habits &c., 255. 
Neurosymploca agria, sp. n., 23G. 

concinna, 236. 

Newcastle, 9, 119. 
N czar a capicola, 246. 

viridula, 246. 

Night in a wagon, 96. 
Nilaus brubru, 167. 
Nomophila noctuella, 153, 241. 
Nucras tessellata, 174. 
Numida coronata, 13, 72. 
Nylstroom, 80. 
Nysius novititis, sp. n., 247, 254. 

Oceanic birds, 4. 
Ochrophlebia ligneola, 259. 
Ocypete megacephala, 180. 
(Ecanthos capensis, 258. 
(Edalus acutangulus, 260. 

citrinus, 260. 

marmoratus, var., 260. 

niffro-fasciatus, 260. 

plena, 260. 

(Edicnemus capensis, 169. 



272 



INDEX. 



Oleanders, 18. 

Oncopettus famelicus, 247. 

Oniticellus militaris, 191.. 

Onitis caffer, 191. 

Onthophagm gazella, 191. 

Ootheca modesta, sp. n., 206. 

Ophisma croceipennis, 239. 

pretoria, sp. n., 239. 

Orthetrumfasciculata, 255, 256. 

subfasciolata, 255, 256. 

Orthoptera, 153, 257. 
Habits &c., 257. 
The food of many birds, 112. 

Oryctes boas, 193. 

Osteodes turbulentata, 240. 

Otis afroides, 74, 168. 

carulescens, 74, 75, 168. 

kori, 74, 128, 168. 

Food, 74. 

Maximum weight, 74. 

Oxythyrea cBneicollis, 194. 

amabilis, 194. 

cinctella, 194. 

hcemorrhoidalis, 195. 

marginalis, 194. 

perroudi, 194. 

rubra, 194. 

Ozarba densa, 238. 
dubitans, 238. 

Pachnoda flaviventris, 92, 115, 126, 
194. 

leucomelana, 194. 

Pachy enema tibtalis, 192. 
Pachymerus apicalis, 247. 
Pachytylus lucasii, 260. 

migrator aides, 71, 260. 

Immense swarm, 71. 
Pats decora, 236. 
Paliffa infuscalis, 241. 
Palpares caffer, 91, 256. 
Palpopleura jucunda, 256. 

/MCMZ, 123, 256. 

jiwrfca, 266. 

Pamera proximo,, 247. 
Pamphila fottentota, 235. 



Pangonia subfascia, 244. 
Pantoleistes princeps, 247. 
Papilio demoleus, 45, 123, 235. 

morania, 123, 235. 

Paracinema basalis, 260. 

tricolor, 260. 

Paramecocoris atomarius, 245. 

ventralis, 240. 

Parathespis galeata, 258. 

Parga gracilis, 259. 

Paroeme gahani, sp. n., 201, 202. 

Partridges, 75, 112. 

Pn<s a/er, 167. 

Pascoe, F. P., 200. 

Passengers to South Africa; their 

sociological characteristics, 2. 
Passer arcuatus, 168. 
Passijlora, 18. 

quadrangularis, 122. 

Peach-brandy, 17. 

Peach-trees, 17, 67. 

Pedetes capensis, 75, 159. 

Pe/ea capreolus, 159. 

Pelopceus spirifex, 210. 

Penf.aplatarthrus natalemis, 40, 189. 

Pentila tropicalis, 234. 

Pemis apivorus, 165. 

Petasia spumans, 259. 

, var. a^er (var. n.), 259. 

Petovia dichroaria, 237. 

marginata, 237. 

Pezotettix capensis, 260. 
Phalopsflavocinctus, 191. 
Pheropsophusfastigiatus, 188. 

litiffiosus, 40, 188. 

Effects of anal explosion, 40. 
PMagathes latus, 201. 
Philonthus punctipennis, 189. 

varians, 152, 189. 

Phryneta spinator, 202. 
Phrynobatrachus natalensis, 176. 
Phyllocnema latipes, 201. 
Phyllocrania paradoxa, 258. 
Phyllodromia germanica, 153, 258. 
Phymateus leprosus, 259. 
morbittosus, 259. 



INDEX. 



273 



Phymateus squarrosus, 259. 
Physalifg, 4. 
PhysorhyncJius cntx, 247. 

patricius, 247. 

Pieris gidica, 234. 

mescntina, 234. 

severina, 234. 

Petersburg, 95. 

Great advance in price of build- 
ing-land, 95. 

In course of development, 95. 

Most German town in the 
Transvaal, 138. 

The Market town for Zout- 

pansberg, 95. 
Piezia anffusticollis, 188. 
Piezodorus purus, 246. 
Pine-apples, 121, 125. 
Pionea africalis, 241. 
Pirates conspurcatm, sp. n., 248, 255. 

lugubris, 248. 

Plasiorrhina plana, 115, 126, 193. 
Planema esebria, 123, 233. 
Platypleura dtvisa, 67, 248. 

Captured and eaten by Spiders, 
67. 

Possibly pair during the breed- 
ing-season, 67. 

Platypleura punctigem, 123, 248. 
Plectroptenis yambensis, 74, 169. 
Pleonomus wahlbergi, 195. 
Plinachtitsfalcatus, sp. n., 246, 251. 

pungens, 246. 

Plocepasser mahali, 167. 
Plusia acuta, 238. 
Pocock, R. I., 179, 161. 
Podiceps capensis, 169. 
Podontia nigrotessellata, 206. 
Poliospiza tristriata, 168. 
Polydaeis cinereis, 54, 200. 
equestris, 54, 200. 

Impaled on spine of Acacia, 55. 

Victims of Spiders, 55. 
Potydesma landula, 238. 
Polygamy, 99. 
Polyhirma macilenta, 50, 187. 



Polysticia clarkii, 206. 
Poophilus actwsus, 248. 
Popillia bipunctata, 123, 192. 
Porpoises, 4. 
Port Elizabeth, 7. 

Botanic Gardens, 8. 

Climate, 7. 

Hospitable community, 7. 

Museum, 8. 
Porthetis cinerascens, 259. 

griseus, 259. 

" Portuguese Man-of-War," 4. 
Potgieter, Hermanus,Field-cornet,81 . 
Potgieter's Rust, 81. 

Terrible visitation of fever in 

1870, 81. 

Pratincola torquata, 166. 
Precis archesia, 233. 

ceryne, 233. 

doantha, 46, 233. 

natalica, 233. 

sesamus, 233. 

Pretoria (Town of), 17, 19, 47. 

Absence of auriferous deposits 
59. 

Drainage and sanitary arrange- 
ments, 143. 

Geological features, 58. 

Most cosmopolitan town in the 
Transvaal, 138. 

Probable argentiferous wealth, 
59. 

Social distinctions, 146. 

Vital statistics, 144. 
Pretorius, Commandant, 82. 
Priocnemis hirsiitus, sp. n., 211, 216. 
Problem in the future of the Trans- 
vaal, 148. 

Promeces viridis, 201. 
Proscephaladeres obesus, 200. 

punctifrons, 200. 

Prospector, the, 85. 

Protective resemblance, compound, 

42. 

Protopurce convolvuli, 18, 68, 153, 
236. 



274 



INDEX. 



Psammodes pierreti, 199. 

scabriusculus, 199. 

striatus, 54, 199. 

A prey to species of Anthia and 

Manticora, 54. 
Psammophis sibilans, 176. 
Psephus puncticollis, 195. 
Pseudocolaspis sericata, 205. 
Pseudonympha narycia, 232. 

viffilans, 232. 

Psiloptera calamitosa, 195. 

gregaria, 195. 

viridimarginata, 195. 

Pternistes swainsoni, 168. 
Pterochilus insignis, 210. 
Pterocles gutturalis, 168. 
Ptychophorus leucostictus, 194. 
Puff-Adder, 173. 
Pycnodictya adustum, 54, 260. 

obscura, 260. 

Pycnonotus layardi, 166. 
Pyralisfarinalis, 153, 241. 
Pyrameis cardui, 39, 68, 153, 233. 
Pyrgomantis singvlaris, 258. 
Pyrgus diomus, 235. 

vtiufer, 235. 

Pyromelana oryx, 167. 

Quaggas, 75. 

Hallway-construction, peculiarities 
of, 125. 

Rains in 1890-91, 40, 46, 47, 48, 50, 
53, 60, 86, 128. 

.RflTza adspersa, 48, 173, 176. 

angolensis, 176. 

natalensis, 176. 

Reduvius capitalis, sp. n., 247, 255. 

erythrocnemis, 247. 

pidvisculatus, sp. n., 247, 254. 

7-opo.r, 247. 

sertws, sp. n., 247, 254. 

Religious beliefs and' customs of 
Magwambas, difficult to be ex- 
plained or understood, 104. 

Reptiles, 87. 



Reptilia and Batrachia, 173. 
Rhabdotis aulica, 194. 

semipunctata, 194. 

sobrina, 194. 

Rhaphidopsis zonaria, 122, 202. 
Rhinoceros, White, 5, 6. 
Rhinoceros simus, 5, 6. 
Rhopalocera, 231. 

Habits and distribution, 231, 

232. 
Rhynchota, 244. 

Habits &c., 244. 
Rhyticoris terminate, 246. 
Richmond Road, Natal, 126. 
Rocky plain resembling old ocean- 
bed, 97. 
Roses, 18, 92, 126. 

Devastated in Natal by Mylabris 

transversalis, 126. 
Little visited by floral beetles, 

92. 
Routes from South-African Ports to 

the Transvaal, 6, 7. 
Ruminants almost exterminated by 

Boers, 12. 
Sutelidee, 47, 192. 

Immense numbers tinder stones, 
47. 

Salamis anacardii, 123, 233. 
Salix gariepina, 17. 
Saprimis gdbonensis, 190. 

natalensis, 190. 

Sarcophaga, sp., 244. 

Saussure, Mons. Henri de, 212, 257, 

260. 
Saxicolafamiliaris, 166. 

monticola, 166. 

pileata, 166. 

Scantius forsteri, 247. 
Scaptelytra sulphureovittata, 195. 
Scarabteides, 46, 190. 
Scaralaus bohemani, 190. 

convexus, 190. 

hottentottus, 190. 

inter stitialis, 191. 



INDEX. 



275 



Scarabceus nigroametis, 190. 

saviffnyi, 190. 

Scarites rugosus, 188. 

Schizonycha, sp., 192. 

Schizorhis concolor, 112, 164, 160. 

Scopus umbretta, 169. 

Scotch colonist in Natal, his experi- 
ence, 147. 

Sebasteos galenus, 191. 

Secretary-bird, 68, 164, 165. 

Capable of running miles with- 
out injury to legs, 69. 
Crop full of remains of ortho- 
pterous insects, 69. 

Sematoc&'ct, gen. n., 242. 

fuliginipuncta, sp. n., 243. 

Serica, spp., 192. 

Serpentaritis secretarius, 68, 164, 
165. 

Serricornia, 195. 

Shai-k, 4, 8. 

Hammer-headed, 8. 

Sharp, Dr. D., 189. 

Sharpe, Dr. R. Bowdler, 164. 

Shelley, Capt. G. E., 165. 

Shrikes, their food, 55. 

Siccia caffra, 237. 

Silpha capensis, 189. 

pernix, 189. 

Silvius denticornis, 244. 

Sinoxylon conigerum, 198. 

Sitagra cafra, 167. 

Smuggling in the Transvaal, 11. 

Snakes not abundant, 87. 

Snow, 48. 

Social distinctions in Pretoria, 146. 

Solpuga chelicornis, 179. 
Attacked by birds, 179. 

Solpugae, 179. 

Species found both in England and 
the Transvaal, 67, 152. 

Spelonken, 96. 

Sphccroderma indica, 206. 

Sphferotherium obtusum, 181. 

Sphenophorus, sp., 200. 

Sphex nigripes, 210. 



Sphingomorpha monfeironis, 239. 

Spiders, 55, 67, 91, 179. 

Spilocephalus distamti, sp. n., 208. 

viridipennis, 206, 207. 

Spilophorus plagosus, 194. 

Spined and hard-wooded trees, sur- 
vival of, in the struggle for exist- 
ence, 43, 44. 

Spirostreptus meinerti, 181.* 

transvaalicus, sp. n., 179, 181. 

(Odontopyge) pretorice t sp. n., 

183. 

Spreo bicolor, 164, 167. 

Spring in the Transvaal, 45, 46. 

Standerton, 118. 

Staphylinus hottentottus, 189. 

Starvation, no, in South Africa, 139. 

Steganocerus multipunctatus, 245. 

Stemocera orissa, var., 91, 195. 

Habits and singular mode of 
capture, 92. 

Sten-ha sacraria, 153, 240. 

Stewart, Prof. C., 157. 

Store- and Canteen-keepers, 130. 

Strixflatninea, 165. 

Strongylium, sp., 199. 

Sympetrum fonscolombii, 256. 

Synagris mirdbilis, 210. 

Syntomis khulweinn, 236. 

SyricMJius verus, 193. 

Tabanus socius, 244. 
Tanning as practised by the Boers, 77. 
Taphronota porosa, 259. 
Tarache cqffi-aria, 238. 
Tantcus telicanus, 233. 
Taurotagus kluffii, 201. 
Telephonus senegalus, 167. 
Tephrcea morosa, 194. 
Tephrocorys cinerea, 168. 
Teracolus achine, 234. 

eris, 91, 234. 

evenina, 91, 234. 

gavisa, 234. 

omphale, 234. 

phleffetom'a, 234. 



276 



INDEX. 



Teracolus subfasciatus, 112, 234. 

theogone, 234. 

vesta, 113, 234. 

Teracotana stibmacula, 237. 
Terias brigitta, 39, 112, 234. 

zoe, 112, 234. 

Termes, sp., 48. 

angustatus, 49, 256. 

Termites devouredby Batrachians, 48. 

by Dog, 50. 

by the Cape Wagtail, 49. 

Tetradiafasciatocollis, 202. 
Tetragonoderus bilunatus, 188. 
Theology of the Boers, 23, 26, 33. 
Thomas, Oldfield, 157. 
Tibicen carinatus, 248. 

undulatus, 248. 

Timber, want of, in the Transvaal, 

78 
Tinea, sp., 243. 

vastella, 243. 

Titlwes cvnfinis, 201. 

Tmetonota sabra, 260. 

Toads, 87. 

Trachynotus angulatus, 199. 

Trachyphonus cafer, 166. 

Traders with the Boers, 130. 

Tragiscoschema amabilis, 202. 

Tragocephala sulphurata, sp. n., 202. 

Tramea basttaris, 54, 256. 

Transvaalia, gen. n., 247, 253. 

lugens, sp. n., 247, 253. 

Tree-ferns, 121. 
Tricenoyenius corpuletitits, 188. 
Trianeura fulvescens, 236. 
Trichostetha placida, 123, 194. 
Trigonopus, sp., 199. 
Trilophidia annulata, 260. 
Trimen, Mr. K., 6, 42, 231. 
TriUea lacunalis, 241. 
Trithemis dorsalis, 256. 

sanguinoknta, 112, 256. 

Trochalus, sp., 192. 
TropicorypJut corticina, 245. 
Turdus litsitsirupa, 166. 
Turtur senegalensis, 168. 



United South-African Confederacy, 

133. 

Upupa africana, 166. 
Urolestes melanoleucus, 167. 
Urota sinope, 122, 238. 

Varanus niloticus, 75, 173, 174. 

Food, 87. 
Veld, 8. 
Veterna patula, sp. n., 246, 250. 

pugionata, 246. 

sanguineirostrisj 246. 

subrufa, 246. 

Vidua ardens, 167. 

principalis, 167. 

Fz/>e?-a arietans, 173, 176. 
Volksrust, 11, 129. 
Vultures, 13, 69. 

Maximum weight, 69. 

Mode of flight, 70. 

Their probable greater scarcity 
of food, 70. 

Wallace, A. R., 41. 

Walsingham, Eight Hon. Lord, 

235. 

Warm baths, 79. 
Warren, W., 235. 
" Waterberg Flats," 79. 
Waterberg, scenery in, 80. 
Waterfal River, 129. 
Waterhouse, C. 0., 190. 
Weather, severe, and losses in live- 
stock, 48. 
White Ants, 48. 
White-bellied Crow, 96. 
Willow trees, 17, 19, 67. 
Winter or dry season in the Trans- 
vaal, 9, 10, 18, 39, 73, 111, 114. 
Women, Kafir, 99. 

Female infanticide unknown, 99. 
Polygamy a useful institution, 

100. 

Position of the Kafir women 
compared with those of the 
lowest classes in England, 100. 



INDEX. 



277 



Wood-bush, 01. 

Contrast of its zoology with 
that of the hare veld, 91. 

XantTiospilopteryx sttperba, 91, 236. 
Xiphoco-a, 260. 

disf.anti, sp. n., 260, 261. 

picta, sp. n., 260, 261. 

Xylocopa inconstans, 210. 
Xystrocera globosa, 201. 

Ypthima asterope, 232. 



Zeritis orthrus, 234. 
Zinnias, 18. 

Zonitis eborina, 198, 199. 
Zonurus cordylus, 174. 
Zophosis angusticostis, 199. 

punctulata, 199. 

Zosterops virens, 166. 
Zoutpansberg, 113. 

Great agricultural future, 113. 

Warm air and rich vegetation, 

113. 
Zyyana, sp., 8. 



PRIKTED BY TAYLOR AND TEANC1S, EED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



NAT. IN TRANSVAAL 



Tab. I. 




W.Rirkiss del. Mintern Bros . Ch 

l.Airusntus urxdosus. b.Bolboceras batesii . 2. Tra.gocepHala, sulpHura_ta. . 
2.HedytiitiS ainoenus. 6. Menius diatariti . 10 . jnidea pretorise. 

S.Lycus dietorxu . 1 . Paroeme gaKani . 11 . Ootheca. modesta, 

4.AcKeeTxops facialis. 8. Crossotus klu-^ii . 12. SpilocepKalus viridipennis . 

R.H .Porter, Publisher, London. . 



NAT . IN TRANSVAAL . 




10 



W.Rirktss del. MinternB. 

1 Reduvius capitalis . 4 . Lycau.ges donovani . 8 . Reduvius sertus. 

2 Zpizeuxis astKiops . 5 . Euclasta -warreru . 9 . Neurosymploca agria. 

3 Reduvius pulvisculatus. 6 . Cxotlxaema. decora-ta. 10. Pirates canspurcatus . 

7. Ophisma. pretoriae . 
R.H. Porter. PuUisriar, London.. 



NAT. IN TRANSVAAL 



Tals.III. 




W.Rxrkiss del. 



Miritern.Bros. Chromo. 



1. Cimex figuratus.yar. 5. Veterna, pa,tu.la. 9 . Lygaeus deser-Lus. 

2. HolcostetKus obsciiratus. S . Antestia. tr-Lnsvaalia. . lO.Lygaeus campestris. 

3. HalyomorpKcL .cs^ita.tau. 7. Lygaeus planitiae . 11 . Nysius novitius . 

4. Halyoraorpha. pretoriae . 8 . PlinacKLias falca-Uis . 12 . TransvaaJia. kigens . 

R.H.Porter.PublisKer, London.. . 



NAT . IN TRANSVAAL . 




imf 

* 9. * f 10. 5 '11. 



"W. Purkiss del . Miniern. Bros. Chron 

1. .Xiphocera. distant!. 4,a,T3,c,ci,e, Sematocera .gerucharact . 8. Mesa diapherogamia. . 

Z.Xiphocera. picta . 5 . Chrotogonus Tneridionalis . 9. Discolia praestabilis . 

3 . Petasia. spumaixs var. ater. 6. AmpulexnigroccErulea. . 10 Ancylopus fuscipe/inis . 

4.Semaiocera. fiiligirupurxcta. 7 . Mutilla alBastjda- 11 .Discolia praecana . 

R. H . Porter. Publisher , London.. 



NAT . IN TRANSVAA1 , . 



Tab V 




W.Purloss d 



BLiilil. 

1 . Homo no tuts coerulajTS . 

2 . CypKononyx an.tenna.ta 

3. Priocnemis hirsutus . 

4. NepKila. trai\svcLalIc6L . 

R.H.Porter 



5 Mygnimia, fa-llax. 

S. Homonotiis pedeskris 

7. Mygrumia distaxiti . 

8. MygrumiabelzebulK. 



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